Course-in-a-Box

Biosource is Your Partner in Course Development

We know that it is hard to develop a course from a blank sheet of paper. We’ve adopted a course-in-a-box approach to speed your development of BCIA-accredited biofeedback and HRV biofeedback courses. You will find links to full-text articles and a comprehensive Biofeedback Glossary in this section.

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We can provide you with an up-to-date multimedia biofeedback textbook with self-testing, course syllabus, and weekly schedule. Please contact Dr. Fred Shaffer with questions about how to quickly design your own course.

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Develop a Biofeedback Course

Biosource can help you build a 3-credit-hour biofeedback course, based on Biofeedback Tutor, which was developed at a nationally-ranked university. This course teaches BCIA’s Biofeedback Blueprint. We invite you to review a semester syllabus with a detailed 16-week calendar.

When you select Biofeedback Tutor as your primary textbook, your students will benefit from 26 professionally-illustrated tutorials supported by over 90 videos and animations.

Table of Biofeedback Modalities from Biosource Tutor

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This multimedia tutorial covers over 900 learning objectives. Your students can assess their learning by taking 10-question online multiple-choice tests over each unit.

Develop a HRV Biofeedback Course

Biosource can also help you create a 1-credit-hour HRV biofeedback course, based on HRV Biofeedback Tutor, which was also developed at a nationally-ranked university. This course teaches BCIA’s HRV Biofeedback Blueprint. We invite you to review a semester syllabus with a detailed 9-week calendar.

When you select HRV Biofeedback Tutor as your primary textbook, your students will benefit from 22 professionally-illustrated tutorials supported by over 70 videos and animations.

Blood Volume Pulse (BVP) Anatomy Summary from HRV Biofeedback Tutor

bvp-anatomy-summary-for-hrv-from-biosource-software

This multimedia tutorial covers over 350 learning objectives. Your students can assess their learning by taking 10-question online multiple-choice tests over each unit.

Disclaimer

Educators building courses based Biofeedback Tutor or HRV Biofeedback Tutor must apply for their own BCIA accreditation. Adoption of these products does not ensure BCIA approval since reviewers will also consider course requirements, student assessment, and instructor credentials.

How to Order 

Your students can directly order these multimedia tutorials from our website or your bookstore can send us an order at fredricshaffer@gmail.com.

Full-Text Biofeedback Articles

Lehrer, P. M., & Gevirtz, R. (2014). Heart rate variability: How and why does it work? Frontiers in Psychology. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00756

Schwartz, S. (2015). Viva vagus: Wandering nerve could lead to range of therapies. Science News, 188(11), 18.

Shaffer, F., McCraty, R., & Zerr, C. L. (2014). A healthy heart is not a metronome: An integrative review of the heart’s anatomy and heart rate variability. Frontiers in Psychology. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01040

Biofeedback Glossary from Biofeedback Tutor

Biofeedback Tutor’s extensive copyrighted glossary is provided as an educational reference below. Search this glossary using CTRL-F (hold the CTRL and F keys down at the same time). We give you permission for its non-commercial use as long as you attribute credit to Biosource Software at biosourcesoftware.com. You may also link it to your commercial or educational website.

0.1 Hz biofeedback

training to concentrate ECG power around 0.1 Hz in the low- frequency (LF) band by teaching patients to breathe diaphragmatically at their resonance frequency around 6 breaths per minute and to experience positive emotional tone to maximize heart rate variability.

40-Hz rhythm

gamma rhythm hypothesized to be associated with feature binding (linking an apple’s color to its shape) and attributed to the neocortex and thalamocortical neurons.

5-HT1 receptor

metabotropic serotonin receptor involved in anxiety, aggression, and depression. Antidepressants increase serotonin binding to this receptor.

5-HT2 receptor

metabotropic serotonin receptor that helps to regulate appetite, motor control, and sexual function. Dual-action antidepressants blockade 5-HT2 receptors to avoid the side effects of agitation, restlessness, and sexual dysfunction.

5-HT3 receptor

metabotropic serotonin receptor that is implicated in nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Dual-action antidepressants blockade 5-HT3 receptors to avoid the side effects of nausea, headache, and vomiting.

+ve

The source is the place at the other end of the neuron where current leaves, and is represented by +ve.

-ve

A sink is where current enters the neuron. Positive sodium ion entry into a neuron creates an active sink, represented by -ve.

alpha-actinin

component of Z discs that connects actin molecules of thin filaments to titin molecules.

A

designation for an auricular (ear) site in the International 10-10 and 10-20 systems.

A band

skeletal muscle component that contains overlapping actin and myosin filaments.

alpha2-adrenergic receptors

G protein-coupled receptors for the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. Hypersensitive alpha2-adrenergic receptors appear to trigger Raynaud’s attacks due to cooling, and both alpha1- and alpha2- adrenoceptors may initiate attacks due to ordinary catecholamine increases that accompany reflex cooling or stress.

A1 allele

an abnormal form of the A1 gene, which results in defective D2 receptors, is present in most severe alcoholics. Reduced D2 receptor activity may produce a reward deficiency syndrome.

A-beta fibers

large-diameter myelinated fibers that rapidly conduct (35-75 m/s) light touch stimuli via the dorsal-column medial-lemniscal and anterolateral systems.

A-delta fibers

small-diameter myelinated fibers found in skin and mucous membranes that strongly influence the sensory-discriminative component of pain. They rapidly conduct (5-30 m/s) pain signals from unimodal mechanoreceptors via the anterolateral system to the thalamus and somatosensory cortex.

A-bar

Wenger’s shorthand for the ratio of sympathetic to parasympathetic excitation. Patients with low A-bar scores are sympathetic-dominant and those with high A-bar scores are parasympathetic dominant.

abbreviated relaxation exercises

procedures like Stroebel’s Quieting Response (QR) that produce low-to-moderate subjective and physiological change, involve minimal sensory restriction, and are practiced for very brief periods of time. They are designed to replace symptoms like anxiety with more adaptive behaviors like cultivated low arousal or mindfulness.

abductors

muscles that move a limb away from the center of the trunk or a body part. For example, abductor pollicis brevis moves the thumb outward.

absolute power

the absolute value of power.

accelerometer

device that measures the linear motion of a body part, like the wrist. Clinicians use this device to monitor variation in wrist movement (lap to table surface) and hand tremor in neuromuscular rehabilitation.

accentuated antagonism

the parasympathetic nervous system’s ability to directly oppose sympathetic action, such as slowing the heart by 20 or 30 beats.

accessory muscles

sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor, scalene, and trapezius muscles, which are used during forceful breathing, as well as during clavicular and thoracic breathing.

acetylcholine (ACh)

the neurotransmitter released by alpha motor neurons at the neuromuscular junction that depolarizes motor endplates producing a muscle action potential (MAP). This neurotransmitter also binds to the secretory portion of eccrine sweat glands, allowing calcium ions to enter and stimulate sweating by acting as a second messenger.

acetylcholine esterase (AChE)

the enzyme that deactivates ACh to allow skeletal muscle fiber relaxation.

AChE-R

abnormal form of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) which may render dendrites with acetylcholine receptors more excitable when stressed.

actin

protein that is the major constituent of thin filaments that is attached to dense zones called Z discs.

action

the movement produced by a muscle’s contraction. For example, the quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles of your leg contract together to dorsiflex (bend the foot upwards) during the forward swing phase of walking.

action potential

propagated electrical signal that usually starts at a neuron’s axon hillock and travels to presynaptic axon terminals.

activated states

in Barrett and Russell’s structural model, high-intensity affective states like tenseness and alertness are placed in the upper hemisphere.

activation

Duffy’s term for arousal that originated with Cannon’s fight-or-flight response.

active electrodes (ECG)

negative (yellow) and positive (blue) ECG electrodes that may be placed on the right upper chest and below the sternum, above the palmar surface of the right and left wrists, or above the palmar surface of the right wrist and above the left knee.

active electrodes (EEG)

electrode that is placed over a site that is a known EEG generator like Cz.

active electrodes (SEMG)

electrodes placed over a target muscle like the masseter.

active placebo

placebo combined with an additive to produce a side effect that can produce a therapeutic response rate in about 60% of patients.

active SEMG training

Neblett’s approach that combines neuromuscular rehabilitation with general relaxation. This involves a collaborative process in which the clinician and client share SEMG biofeedback and the client’s self-reports to identify patterns of muscle bracing associated with pain and restricted range of motion, and evaluate strategies to correct these problems.

active tension

force generated by muscle fibers when myosin filaments pull Z discs together, shortening the sarcomeres.

active volition

a process where you direct yourself to perform an action like clenching a fist that is triggered by words like make or try.

acute pain

pain associated with tissue damage, involves brief, intense unpleasant sensations, warns of potential injury, and may produce transient anxiety.

acute stress response

autonomic changes that occur at the end of Selye’s alarm stage, for example, increased heart rate.

adaptation energy

in Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome, the capacity of local organs to respond to the demands created by stressors. Depletion of adaptation energy theoretically results in local adaptation syndromes like muscle fatigue and tissue inflammation.

adductors

muscles that move a limb toward the center of the trunk or a body part. For example, adductor pollicis moves the thumb inward.

adenylate cyclase

at a metabotropic receptor, an enzyme that transforms ATP into the second messenger cyclic AMP.

adhesive collars

self-adhering rings that secure SEMG electrodes to the skin.

adrenal cortex

outer region of the adrenal gland that produces the hormone cortisol.

adrenal medulla

inner region of the adrenal gland that produces the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine.

affective intensity

in Barrett and Russell’s structural model, a dimension that ranges from activated to deactivated states.

affective valence

in Barrett and Russell’s structural model, a dimension that ranges from unpleasant to pleasant affective states.

afferent

neuron that transmits sensory information towards the central nervous system, or from one region to another.

affirmations

positive statements like “Every day I am getting better in every way.”

agonist

muscle that produces a specific movement and is opposed by an antagonist. For example, when the biceps brachii (agonist) contracts to flex the forearm at the elbow joint, the triceps brachii (antagonist) must relax or else flexion will be prevented.

agonist spasticity

excessive muscle tone and tendon reflexes in an agonist muscle observed  in hemiplegic patients.

alarm

first stage of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome that consists of shock and countershock phases.

alexithymics

individuals who are low in hypnotic ability and awareness of internal cues and feelings associated with illness. Alexithymia is prevalent in patients with multiple psychosomatic complaints and may delay their seeking and receiving medical attention.

aliasing

artifact created during analog-to-digital conversion of a continuous signal by a signal feature near the sampling rate, creating an “alias,” of the signal feature as a beat frequency difference with the sampling rate and the signal feature. Aliasing can be caused by a slow sampling rate or a continuous signal with a frequency too close to the sampling rate.

all-or-none law

once an action potential is triggered in an axon, it is propagated, without decrement, to the end of the axon. The amplitude of the action potential is unrelated to the intensity of the stimulus that triggers it.

allodynia

neuropathic pain syndrome where nonpainful stimuli, like light touch, elicit severe pain.

allostasis

the maintenance of stability through change by mechanisms that anticipate challenge and adapt through behavior and physiological change.

allostatic load model

McEwen and Seeman’s hypothesis that when stressors are acute or repeatedly occur, biological responses to stress can harm the body.

alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for mood disorders

protocol that trains depressed clients to relax and warm their hands using diaphragmatic breathing and autogenic phrases and then to decrease left frontal alpha with respect to right frontal alpha.

alpha blocking

replacement of the alpha rhythm by low-amplitude desynchronized beta activity during movement, attention, mental effort like complex problem-solving, and visual processing.

alpha motor neuron

motoneuron that innervates the skeletal muscles fibers that comprise its motor unit.

alpha rhythm

first EEG rhythm discovered by Berger that ranges from 8 to 13 Hz, appears in three-quarters of adults when they are calm, awake, and not actively processing information. This rhythm is primarily spread by an intracortical network that lies parallel to the cortical surface and that there is only a moderate contribution from neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus that project to the cortex. Researchers have correlated the alpha rhythm with relaxed wakefulness.

alpha spindles

regular bursts of alpha activity.

alpha-adrenergic receptors

G protein-coupled receptors for the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. Freedman discovered that when sympathetic C-fibers release these catecholamines and they bind to alpha-adrenergic receptors on small arteries called arterioles, this can produce hand-cooling.

alpha-subunit

a subunit of a G protein that is associated with the neuron membrane and that breaks away to activate enzymes within the neuron when a ligand binds to a metabotropic receptor.

alpha-theta training

training to progressively slow the EEG, increasing alpha and then theta abundance, that was developed by Brown and the Menninger Foundation and then adopted by Peniston and Kulkovsky in treating alcoholics.

alternating current (AC)

an electric current that periodically reverses its direction.

Alzheimer’s disease

neurodegenerative disease that commonly produces dementia in people over 65. Misfolded amyloid beta peptides and neurofibrillary tangles help diagnose this disease at autopsy.

amino acid neurotransmitters

oldest family of transmitters. These molecules bind to ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, so they transmit information and modulate neuronal activity. In the brain, most synaptic communication is accomplished by glutamate (generally excitatory) and GABA (generally inhibitory).

AMPA (glutamate) receptors

ionotropic receptor which opens sodium channels, depolarizes the neuron’s membrane (producing an EPSP), and dislodges a Mg+ ion that blocks an adjacent NMDA (glutamate) receptor’s calcium channel. AMPA receptors are responsible for most activity at glutamatergic synapses.

ampere (A)

a unit of electrical current or the rate of flow of electrons through a conductor. One volt dropped across one ohm of resistance produces a current flow of one ampere.

amplitude

the energy or power contained within the EEG signal measured in microvolts or picowatts; or of the EMG signal measured in microvolts.

amplitude asymmetry

the difference in signal strength of a frequency band at two EEG sites. For example, the difference in alpha amplitude detected from F3 (left frontal) and F4 (right frontal) sites.

amplitude control

protocol that trains patients to increase EEG amplitude (signal strength) instead of frequency. This strategy can raise the amplitude of both a target rhythm (beta) and an unwanted rhythm (alpha), since it does not teach frequency discrimination.

amygdala

limbic system structure that participates in evaluating whether stimuli are threatening, establishing unconscious emotional memories, learning conditioned emotional responses, and producing anxiety and fear responses.

anal EMG probe

internal EMG electrode, which consists of two active electrodes, that is inserted in the rectum and an external reference electrode to measure and train pelvic floor muscles (PFM).

analgesia

insensitivity to pain.

analog

proportional feedback. For example, a bar chart that grows as SEMG activity increases. Budzynski and Stoyva compared analog and binary biofeedback in teaching subjects to control the masseter muscle used in chewing.

analog display

a display that continuously represents biofeedback signal amplitude over time.

analog filter

analog circuits designed using components like capacitors, resistors, and operational amplifiers designed to remove and/or enhance signal components.

analog-to-digital (A/D) converter

electronic device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital values.

anastomoses

junctions of two or more vessels that supply the same region. They are also called arteriovenous anastomoses (AV shunts). For example, bypass capillaries and directly connect arterioles to venules.

aneurysm

formation of a blood-filled sac in blood vessel walls due to their dilation or weakening. An aneurysm can produce cerebral hemorrhage.

anger-in dimension

Diamond’s hypothesized tendency to withhold the expression of anger, even when anger is warranted.

angina pectoris

chest pain due to insufficient perfusion of the heart with blood.

angle of the acromion

posterior to the bony triangle at the top of the shoulder.

anion

negative ion, for example, chloride (Cl).

annulospiral receptors

muscle spindle length receptors that stretch as a muscle lengthens and activate alpha motor neurons to strengthen muscle contraction to increase muscle tone.

anonymity

protection of a client’s identity.

antagonist

muscle that opposes an agonist’s action. For example, the triceps brachii (antagonist) opposes flexion by the biceps brachii (agonist).

antagonist paresis

weakness of an antagonist muscle observed in hemiplegic patients.

anterior

near or toward the front of the head, for example, the anterior cingulate.

anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)

frontal division that mediates executive functions and generates affective motivation to initiate autonomic and motor responses to a condition that threatens body integrity; final site for physical and psychological pain integration. The ACC has cognitive (dorsal anterior cingulate) and affective (ventral anterior cingulate) conflict-monitoring components.

anterior commissure

bundle of nerve fibers that crosses the midline and connects the left and right temporal lobes, and the hippocampus and amygdala.

anterolateral system (ALS)

also called the spinothalamic system, somatosensory pathway that distributes most pain information to the brain.

antibodies

immune system proteins called immunoglobulins that recognize and neutralize bacteria and viruses.

anti-epileptic drugs

medications that suppress seizures by reducing repetitive firing or increasing GABAergic inhibition. Repetitive firing may initiate or maintain a seizure.

antigen-antibody reaction

antibodies permanently bind to antigens and neutralize them.

antigens

molecules (proteins or polysaccharides) that trigger an immune response.

anxiogenic

anxiety producing. There is an anxiogenic pathway from the raphe system to the hippocampus.

anxiolytic

anxiety reducing. There is an anxiolytic pathway from the raphe system to the hippocampus.

apical dendrite

dendrite that arises from the top of the pyramid and extends vertically to layer 1 of the neocortex.

apnea

breath suspension.

apocrine sweat glands

glands that usually open into hair follicles and are mainly distributed in the armpits and genital region. They produce sweat odor and distress can expel sweat from their tubules.

apoptosis

cell death that can result from glutamate release following cerebral ischemia.

apraxia

the inability to organize movements into a productive sequence, initiate, and perform voluntary skilled movements in the absence of paralysis. These symptoms can result from damage to the left parietal and prefrontal cortex.

arousal

process that combines alertness and wakefulness, produced by at least five neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, histamine, hypocretin, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

arrhythmias

abnormal or irregular rhythms, also called dysrhythmias.

arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart and that are divided into elastic and muscular arteries, and arterioles.

arteriole vasoconstriction

decreased diameter of an arteriole’s lumen due to activation of vasoconstricting sympathetic nerves that act on alpha-adrenergic receptors, circulating hormones, and local chemical factors.

arteriole vasodilation

increased diameter of an arteriole’s lumen due to the circulation of a beta-adrenergic agent in the blood. There are no vasodilating nerves in the fingers.

arterioles

almost microscopic (8-50 microns in diameter) blood vessels that deliver blood to capillaries and anastomoses. Arterioles may control up to 50% of peripheral resistance through their narrow diameter, contractility, and massive surface area that follows a fractal pattern.

arteriosclerosis

diseases that thicken artery walls and reduce elasticity.

arteriovenous anastomoses (AV shunts)

junctions of two or more vessels that supply the same region. For example, bypass capillaries and directly connect arterioles to venules.

arthritis

subtype of rheumatism in which inflammation produces painful joint swelling and stiffness.

artifact

false signals like 50/60Hz noise produced by line current.

ascending pain pathways

the dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system and anterolateral system, which transmit information from peripheral receptors to the brain over a three-neuron pathway that includes a primary afferent axon, a secondary projection neuron, and a tertiary neuron whose cell body lies in the thalamus.

asthma

episodic reversible airway obstruction, chronic airway inflammation and hypersensitivity to stimuli (like allergens, cold air, exercise, and viral infection). Chronic inflammation may scar the airway resulting in obstruction that does not reverse with medication.

astrocytes

star-shaped glial cells that communicate with and support neurons, and help determine whether synapses will form.

asymmetry

imbalance between the SEMG measurements of homologous left and right muscle groups. A difference of at least a 20% difference is considered pathological and may contribute to pain.

asynchronous waves

neurons depolarize and hyperpolarize independently.

ataxia

impairment of the direction, amplitude, and speed of muscular movement. Ataxia is often due to cerebellar damage. Clinicians observe ataxia in a subtype of cerebral palsy (CP) patients whose coordination is impaired while walking and moving their arms.

athetoid movements

slow, continuous twisting movements. These movements are observed in a subtype of cerebral palsy (CP) patients with dyskinetic movements.

atom

the basic unit of matter consisting of a central nucleus that contains protons and neutrons and orbiting electrons.

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom that defines an element.

atomic weight

approximately, the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

ATP

energy source for a neuron’s sodium-potassium transporters.

atrial fibrillation

form of supraventricular arrhythmia with a heart rate above 300 beats per minute. This problem is more commonly seen in older patients and is associated with decreased filling time and mean arterial pressure.

atrial flutter

an abnormally-fast heart rhythm in the atria (upper chambers) of the heart that Swami Rama voluntarily produced during a demonstration at the Menninger Foundation.

atrioventricular (AV) bundle

cardiac cells that conduct electrical impulses from the AV node to the top of the septum.

atrioventricular (AV) node

one of two internal pacemakers that are primarily responsible for the heart rhythm, located between the atria and the ventricles.

aura (prodrome)

neurological symptoms that precede a breakthrough headache, hours to days before headache onset that are observed in migraine with aura (classic migraine). An aura is caused by cortical spreading depression (hyperpolarization).

autocorrelation

correlation between a series of values for a single signal.

autogenic discharges

Luthe identified 53 categories of side effects like tingling and muscle twitches in 100 novice clients.

autogenic meditation exercises

in autogenic training, techniques used to improve visual imagery skills after a client has mastered the six standard exercises. These exercises were designed to assist clients who find visualization hard.

autogenic modification procedures

in autogenic training, organ-specific formulae and intentional formulae that are used when a client does not respond to practice of the six standard exercises.

autogenic shift

in autogenic training, the transition to a passive, pre-sleep, hypnagogic autogenic state.

Autogenic Training

deep relaxation procedure developed by Schultz and Luthe that involves a sequence of three procedures: six standard exercises, autogenic modification, and autogenic meditation.

autonomic balance

Wenger’s concept of a ratio of sympathetic to parasympathetic excitation.

autonomic nervous system

subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that includes enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic divisions.

autoreceptors

metabotropic receptors that can be located on the membrane of any part of a neuron. They detect neurotransmitters released by a neuron itself, generate IPSPs that inhibit the neuron from reaching threshold, and regulate internal processes like transmitter synthesis and release through the second messenger system.

average reference montage

combination of derivations that add all remaining 10-20 electrodes in each amplifier’s physical or virtual input 2 and compares each active electrode in physical or virtual input 1 against this reference signal. Allows adequate detection of localized EEG activity and electrode artifact, but is less appropriate with widely-distributed signals.

average voltage

0.637 of peak voltage.

aversive punishment (positive punishment)

the weakening of an operant behavior when it is followed by an aversive stimulus (a client reduces relaxation practice when lack of progress frustrates her).

avoidance-avoidance conflict

the client perceives both her symptoms (low back pain) and training (SEMG biofeedback) as aversive.

avoidant coping strategies

coping by refusing to recognize potential problems.

axoaxonic synapses

junctions between two axons that do not affect the generation of an action potential, only the amount of neurotransmitter that is distributed.

axodendritic synapses

junctions between axons and dendrites that determine whether the axon hillock will initiate an action potential.

axon

long, cylindrical structures that convey information from the soma to the terminal buttons. An axon also transports molecules in both directions along the outer surface of protein bundles called microtubules.

axon hillock

a swelling in the cell body where a neuron integrates the messages it has received from other neurons and decides whether to fire an action potential.

axonal varicosity

swelling in an axon wall that allows the release of neurotransmitter through the wall via volume transmission.

axoplasmic transport

movement of molecules in both directions along the outer surface of protein bundles called microtubules.

B lymphocytes

immune cells central to humoral immunity that rapidly produce antibodies that counter bacteria into the blood, neutralize their toxins, and prevent reinfection by viruses.

bandpass

filter that combines a low-pass filter and high-pass filter.

bandpass filter

electronic device that combines a low-pass filter and high-pass filter to transmit frequencies within a specific range and attenuate those outside that range, for example, a 100-200 Hz bandpass filter.

bandwidth

the difference between a filter’s lower and upper cutoff frequencies. The bandwidth of a 100-200 Hz bandpass filter is 100 Hz.

baroreflex

baroreceptor reflex that provides negative feedback control of blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure activates the baroreflex to lower blood pressure and low blood pressure suppresses the baroreflex to raise blood pressure.

basal dendrite

dendrite that horizontally branches out from the 30 um base of the pyramid through the layer where the neuron resides.

basal ganglia

these forebrain structures consist of an egg-shaped nucleus that contains the putamen and globus pallidus, and a tail-shaped structure called the caudate, which together are responsible for the production of movement. The basal ganglia have also been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s chorea.

basilar artery migraine

headache with prodromal symptoms that last from 2-45 minutes with symptoms of total blindness, altered consciousness, and vertigo and ataxia (involving the brainstem). Clients experience severe pulsating occipital headache with vomiting that persists for hours or until sleep.

BCIA

Biofeedback Certification International Alliance.

bead thermistor

temperature sensor that encases the thermistor in an epoxy bead.

beat frequency

a false signal produced during analog-to-digital conversion by frequencies near the sampling rate.

behavioral breathlessness syndrome

perspective that hyperventilation is the consequence and not the cause of the disorder. The traditional model that hyperventilation results in reduced arterial CO2levels has been challenged by the finding that many HVS patients have normal arterial CO2 levels during attacks.

behavioral test (tracking test)

procedure to ensure that a biofeedback instrument accurately detects and displays subject performance.

Bell palsy

unilateral facial paralysis caused by disease or trauma to the facial (VII) nerve.

beta blockers

drugs like Inderal (propranolol) that block the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine on b-adrenergic receptors, inhibit renin secretion, and decrease heart rate and cardiac contractibility. They are used to lower blood pressure and prevent cardiac arrhythmia.

beta rhythm

13-36 Hz rhythm, discovered by Berger, associated with arousal and attention that is generated by brainstem mesencephalic reticular stimulation that depolarizes neurons in both the thalamus and cortex. The beta rhythm can be divided into multiple ranges.

beta-adrenergic

G protein-coupled receptors for the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. Freedman discovered that when these catecholamines circulate in the bloodstream and bind to beta-adrenergic receptors located on the interiors of small arteries called arterioles, this initiates a cascade that can produce hand-warming.

beta-adrenergic agent

molecule that binds to a beta-adrenergic receptor to start the cascade that causes hand-warming.

biceps brachii

muscle that flexes and supinates the forearm. The actives are centered over the bulge in this muscle.

bidirectional temperature biofeedback with cold challenge

biofeedback training to alternatively increase and decrease peripheral temperature in a cold room or while wearing a cold suit or glove.

bidirectional training

teaching a client to alternatively increase and decrease a physiological response (increase and decrease masseter SEMG).

bilateral synchronous slow waves

a pathological sign observed in drowsy children. When detected in alert adults, intermittent bursts of high amplitude slow waves may be a sign of gray matter lesions in deep midline structures.

binary

ON or OFF feedback. For example, a tone that only appears when SEMG activity falls below a target value like 2 microvolts. Budzynski and Stoyva compared analog and binary biofeedback in teaching subjects to control the masseter muscle used in chewing.

binary display

displays that shows whether the signal is above or below a threshold.

biofeedback

learning process that teaches an individual to control her physiological activity, (2) the aim of biofeedback training is to improve health and performance, (3) instruments rapidly monitor an individual’s performance and display it back to her, (4) the individual uses this feedback to produce physiological changes, (5) changes in thinking, emotions, and behavior often accompany and reinforce physiological changes, and (6) these changes become independent of external feedback from instruments. Information about psychophysiological performance is obtained by noninvasive monitoring and used to help individuals achieve self-regulation through a learning process that resembles motor skill learning.

biofeedback-assisted relaxation training

the integration of biofeedback with relaxation procedures like autogenic training and progressive relaxation.

Bio-Feedback Research Society (BRS)

original name of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB).

biomedical model

conventional view that illness is primarily due to biological abnormalities.

biopsychosocial model

Engel’s perspective that the complex interplay of psychological, biological, and sociological factors results in health or illness.

biphasic SPR

a skin potential response (SPR) that starts with a negative phase and then ends with a positive phase.

bipolar method

recording method that uses an active electrode and a reference electrode to detect differences in electrical potential and both electrodes are in known active fields (e.g., the active and reference are both placed on the scalp).

bipolar montage

combination of derivations that compares signals from two electrodes, that are often adjacent, at 10-20 system coordinates inserted into physical or virtual inputs 1 and 2. Allows good detection of localized EEG activity and electrode artifact, but poor detection of widely-distributed EEG activity.

bipolar recording

recording method that uses two active electrodes and a common reference.

bit depth (bit number)/H3>the number of voltage levels that an A/D converter can discern. A resolution of 16 bits means that the converter can discriminate among 65,536 voltage levels.

blepharospasm

spasm of the eyelids characterized by bilateral blinking that results in symptoms that range in severity from increased blinking and periodic eyelid spasm to ocular pain, facial spasms, and disabling interference with vision.

blood pressure

the force exerted by blood as it presses against arteries.

blood volume

tonic changes in the amount of blood in an arm, leg, or digit.

blood volume pulse (BVP)

the phasic change in blood volume with each heartbeat. It is the vertical distance between the minimum value (trough) of one pulse wave and the maximum value (peak) of the next measured using a photoplethysmograph (PPG).

Bohr effect

the influence of carbon dioxide on hemoglobin release of oxygen.

boundary model

position that set points are not rigid and that physiological processes are maintained within acceptable ranges.

bradykinin

peptide that binds to nociceptors and increases their firing rate, worsening pain.

brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF)

member of the neurotrophin family that increases the number of new neurons and neural connectivity, whose expression is increased by exercise.

breathing harness

respiration sensor that changes resistance to a current as it expands and contracts during the respiratory cycle.

bridging artifact

a short circuit between adjacent electrodes due to excessive application of electrode paste or excessive sweating or a wet scalp that can cause adjacent electrodes to produce identical referential EEG recordings or to show a flat line with a bipolar montage.

bundle branches

fibers that descend along both sides of the septum (right and left bundle branches) and conduct the action potential over the ventricles about 0.2 s after the appearance of the P wave.

burnout

syndrome produced by chronic stress that is characterized by inefficacy, cynicism, and exhaustion.

C

designation for a central site along the axis between A1 and A2 in the International 10-10 (C5-C6) and 10-20 (C3-C4) systems.

C-fiber

slowly-adapting small unmyelinated axon that slowly transmits pain information.

C7

seventh cervical vertebra.

calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)

neuropeptide, that along with substance P, stimulates pain receptors and increases blood vessel dilation in migraine headaches.

calcium channel blockers

drugs like nifedipine (Procardia, Adalat) that slow Ca2+ entry into myocardial fibers, reducing the heart’s workload and contraction force, and blood pressure.

capillaries

blood vessels that are 7-9 microns in diameter, found near almost all cells, and that may directly connect arterioles with venules or form extensive networks for rapid exchange of a large volume of substances (nutrients and waste products).

capnometer

instrument that monitors the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in an air sample (end-tidal CO2) by measuring the absorption of infrared light.

capnometric biofeedback

the display of end-tidal CO2 back to the monitored individual.

cardiac accelerator nerves

sympathetic motoneurons that arise from the medulla’s cardiovascular center increase the rate of spontaneous depolarization in SA and AV nodes, and increase stroke volume by strengthening the contractility of the atria and ventricles.

cardiac cycle

one cycle consists of systole (ventricular contraction), and diastole (ventricular relaxation).

cardiac muscle

muscle fibers that comprise most of the heart wall. These fibers have crossed striations that allow the heart to pump and contain the same actin and myosin filaments, bands, zones, and Z discs as skeletal muscles.

cardiac output

the amount of blood pumped by the heart in a minute that is calculated by multiplying stroke volume times heart rate. This is 5.25 liters/min (70 ml x 75 beats/min) in a normal, resting adult.

cardiotachometer

device that measures the frequency of ventricular contraction beat-to-beat.

cardiovascular reactivity (CVR)

changes in cardiovascular function due to physical or psychological challenge. For example, increased blood pressure and heart rate in response to social stressors like provocation.

cardiovascular resonance frequency biofeedback

Lehrer and colleagues’ Smetankin protocol that combines HRV biofeedback with abdominal pursed-lips breathing. They train patients to breathe at their individual resonance frequency to increase HRV and treat disorders like asthma.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

painful and disabling example of repetitive stress injury (RSI) due to peripheral nerve injury involving inflammation of the tendons that travel through the wrist’s carpal tunnel. These clients experience tingling, numbness, pain in the lower thumb and the first three fingers, muscle weakness in the thenar eminence of the hand, and reduced skin electrical activity and skin temperature.

catecholamines

chemical compounds containing catechol and amine groups, like dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine.

cations

positive ions like K, Ca2+, and Na+.

caudal

away from the front of the head.

cell body or soma

contains machinery for cell life processes and receives and integrates EPSPs and IPSPs from axons, which are generated by axosomatic synapses (junctions between axons and somas). The cell body of a typical neuron is 20 um in diameter, and its spherical nucleus, which contains chromosomes comprised of DNA, is 5-10 um across.

cell-mediated immunity

slower, cellular response that utilizes cytotoxic and helper T cells from T lymphocytes provided by the thymus gland and is most effective in controlling cancer, foreign tissue, fungal and viral infections, and parasites.

center frequency

the frequency located at the middle of a bandpass filter. For example, 150 Hz is the center frequency for a 100-200 Hz bandpass filter.

central nervous system

division of the nervous system that includes the brain, spinal cord, and retina.

central nucleus of the amygdala

region of the amygdala that orchestrates the amygdala’s response to important stimuli by activating circuits in the brainstem (autonomic arousal) and the basal ganglia and periaqueductal gray (defensive behavior). For example, it activates the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, resulting in increased CRH release to the pituitary gland.

central pattern generators

spinal circuits activated by the lateral and ventral tracts that direct the recruitment of motor units to perform repetitive movements.

cerebral cortex

the layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres. The cerebral cortex consists of gray matter and white matter.

cerebral hemorrhage

subtype of intracranial hemorrhage caused by the rupture of a cerebral blood vessel, due to hemorrhagic stroke or trauma that release blood, damaging adjacent neural tissue.

cerebral ischemia

localized reduction of blood flow to all or part of the brain below the level required to meet metabolic demands that can produce loss of consciousness and irreversible brain damage. The three main causes are arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and embolism.

cerebral palsy (CP)

family of nonprogressive motor disorders that involve irreversible motor disability in which skeletal muscles are poorly controlled or paralyzed due to damage before or soon after birth. CP includes spastic, dyskinetic, ataxic, and mixed types.

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

stroke, destruction of brain tissue (infarction) due to cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral ischemia affecting blood vessels that supply the brain. CVAs show abrupt onset and involve temporary or permanent neurological symptoms like aphasia, paralysis, or loss of sensation.

certificant

an individual who has been certified by BCIA.

certificate of completion

recognition by the BCIA that an applicant has successfully completed an approved didactic workshop based on BCIA’s blueprint and passed an exam over its content.

certification

recognition by the BCIA that an applicant has met its requirements for entry-level competence in the provision of biofeedback services.

cervical paraspinal placement

active electrodes are placed around C2 and C5 lateral or medial to the spine over the cervical paraspinal muscles.

challenge

In Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional Model of stress, an individual’s assessment during primary appraisal of her potential to cope with an event and gain from this opportunity.

channel (derivation)

the potential difference between two measurement sites (C3-A1) as it changes over time.

chaos

unpredictability due to non-linear dynamics.

chemical synapses

junctions between neurons that transmit molecules across gaps of less than 300 angstroms. Neurons use chemical synapses to produce short-duration (ms) and long-duration (seconds to hours) changes in the nervous system. Chemical synapses are capable of more extensive communication, and of producing more diverse and long-lasting changes, than electrical synapses.

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

progressive respiratory disorder that is mainly caused by smoking tobacco, additional causes include cystic fibrosis, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, bronchiectasis (chronic abnormal bronchiole dilation), and rare bullous lung diseases (featuring thin-walled sacs that contain air).

chronic pain

pain that has persisted for at least 6 months (longer than the 2-4 months usually required for healing) and has not responded to medical treatment.

chronic tension-type headache

steady, nonthrobbing pain that may involve the fronto-temporal vertex and/or occipito-cervical areas with a lateral or bilateral distribution with an average headache frequency of more than 15 days per month for more than 6 months.

classic Raynaud’s

triphasic disorder during which a patient exhibits color change (pallor, cyanosis, and rubor) in the digits of the hands or feet. All three color changes are observed in only a minority of patients.

classical conditioning

unconscious associative learning process that modifies reflexive behavior and prepares us to rapidly respond to future situations.

classical routes for EEG activation

specific sensory pathways like the visual (retina to the visual cortex), auditory (cochlea to the auditory cortex), and somatosensory (chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors to the somatosensory cortex) systems. Increased transmission of information through these pathways desynchronizes EEG activity in the cortical regions to which these afferent neurons project, as specialized circuits of neurons independently process this information.

clavicle

collarbone.

clavicular breathing

breathing pattern that primarily relies on the external intercostals and the accessory muscles to inflate the lungs, resulting in a more rapid respiration rate, excessive energy consumption, and incomplete ventilation of the lungs.

client

recipient of biofeedback services.

clinically standardized meditation (CSM)

systematic secular meditative procedure that incorporates components from meditative techniques like TM.

clonidine (Catapres)

catecholamine agonist which may be combined with lower doses of methylphenidate (Ritalin) to increase treatment effectiveness supporting the norepinephrine hypothesis of ADHD.

closed circuit

a complete path that allows electrons to travel from the power source, through the conductor and resistance, and back to the source.

cluster headache

episodes that start abruptly without prodromes, 2 to 3 hours after falling asleep, and feature intense, throbbing, unilateral pain involving the eye, temple, neck, and face for 15 to 90 minutes. A typical pattern is one headache every 24 hours for 6-12 weeks (the headaches cluster in time) followed by a 12-month period of remission. Biofeedback is not efficacious for this type of headache.

cognitive integration system

in Sterman’s model, these consist of centers that analyze and integrate sensory information with motor activity and influence thalamic generation of electrical potentials.

cognitive-evaluative component

the meaning of pain is processed in the prefrontal cortex and the insula.

coherence

correlation between two EEG signals at two recording sites, which is squared to produce values ranging from 0 – 1, to measure the stability of their phase relationship and, therefore, the likelihood that they share a common generator.

coherence analysis

procedure developed by Porges and Bohrer to measure the correlation between two EEG signals and compare their arrival times.

coincidence detection

procedure to control EMG artifact that only records EEG signals (14 Hz) when EMG signals at a predetermined frequency (70 Hz) are absent.

cold pressor test

immersion of the hand in ice water container for 1 minute to measure the effect on blood pressure and heart rate. This does not increase sympathetic activity in digital nerves of Raynaud’s patients, which challenges Raynaud’s sympathetic overactivity hypothesis of this disorder.

commissures

axon tracts. The left and right hemispheres communicate using the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, and posterior commissure.

common electrode reference montage

combination of derivations in which the same ground electrode (distant from the EEG signal source) is inserted into physical or virtual input 2 of each amplifier while a different electrode is placed in physical or virtual input 1 for each derivation. Allows poor detection of localized EEG activity and adequate detection of widely-distributed EEG activity.

common mode rejection ratio (CMRR)

the degree by which a differential amplifier boosts signal (differential gain) and artifact (common mode gain).

common vehicle transmission

transfer of infectious organisms by equipment, including cables and sensors.

comodulation

the correlation ranging from 1 to -1 between the amplitudes of specific frequencies recorded at different sites over time and specific conditions (e.g., eyes closed). Comodulation is high when the amplitudes increase and decrease together, suggesting functional coordination between brain sites.

competence

level of proficiency.

complex

a sequence of waves.

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS)

chronic progressive disease that involves severe (often burning) pain, swelling and skin lesions. The International Association for the Study of Pain divides CRPS into Type I, which includes Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), when nerve damage is absent, and Type II, causalgia, when nerve damage is present. This disorder may progress to dystrophy (weakness or wasting) of the area.

computer-related disorder (CRD)

Peper and Gibney’s term for pain experienced when working with a computer. Repetitive motion interacts with many other factors to produce injury and pain.

computerized biofeedback knee joint goniometer (CBG)

biofeedback instrument that provides patients and physicians with audiovisual feedback about knee joint angle. This information is crucial in retraining total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients to achieve a normal range-of-motion (ROM).

COMT

degrading enzyme that only targets the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine.

concentric contraction

fibers shorten as your body moves upward, for example, a pull-up.

conditioned immunosuppression

classically conditioned suppression of immunity. For example, in Ader and Cohen’s research, rats conditioned with sweetened water and an immunosuppressive drug died after only drinking the water.

conditioned response (CR)

in classical conditioning, a response (blood pressure rise) elicited by a conditioned stimulus (criticism).

conditioned stimulus (CS)

in classical conditioning, a stimulus (dentist’s office), that in association with an unconditioned stimulus (pain), elicits an unconditioned response (anxiety) like the original unconditioned response.

conditioning

subtype of nondeclarative memory that connects two stimuli or a stimulus and a response.

conductance (G)

the ability of a material like copper or silver to carry an electric current. Conductance is measured in siemens (formerly mhos).

conduction myofibers

fibers that extend from the bundle branches into the myocardium, depolarize contractile fibers in the ventricles (lower chambers), resulting in the QRS complex.

conductor

a material that readily allows electron movement like a copper wire.

confidentiality

a client’s right to keep personal information private.

connectivity training

strategy designed to correct deficient or excessive communication between two brain sites as measured by indices like coherence and comodulation.

constant voltage system

method for measuring skin conductance that holds the voltage through the skin constant so that current changes with resistance.

constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT)

Taub’s stroke protocol that restricts the movement of the unaffected limb to force the patient to rely on the affected one and intensively trains patients to use the more-affected limb many hours daily. Biofeedback is used as a adjunctive procedure.

contingent negative variation (CNV)

steady, negative shift in potential (15 microvolts in young adults) detected at the vertex. This slow cortical potential may reflect expectancy, motivation, intention to act, or attention. The CNV appears 200-400 ms after a warning signal (S1), peaks within 400-900 ms, and sharply declines after a second stimulus that requires performance of a response (S2).

continuing education

organized learning experiences undertaken after a credential has been earned to ensure up-to-date knowledge.

continuity test

a procedure to ensure that a circuit is closed, for example, that a cable is not broken.

continuous beat-by-beat heart rate biofeedback

treatment of choice for supraventricular arrhythmias and ventricular ectopic beats in which patients are trained to achieve bidirectional control guided by the display of each heartbeat. In this training, clients learn to alternately increase and decrease symptoms like premature ventricular contractions.

continuous irregular delta

slow waves produced by white matter lesions seen in disorders like multiple sclerosis.

contraction phase

segment of an SEMG tracking test where the patient is instructed to contract a monitored muscle.

contralateral

structures that are located on opposite sides of the body. For example, neurons in the left primary motor cortex control muscles on the right side of the body.

contralateral system

in Boucsein’s model of EDA control, a system that controls the sweat gland activity of the hand on the opposite side of the brain. This system expresses activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia or BG (i.e., caudate nucleus and putamen), and mediates electrodermal activity during cognition, orienting, and locomotion.

corner or cutoff frequencies

the frequencies at which voltage is reduced to .707 of its center frequency strength. The corner frequencies are 100 Hz and 200 Hz for an 100-200 Hz bandpass filter.

corpus callosum

the largest commissure that connects the left and right frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes.

corrugator

muscle used in frowning whose SEMG level is correlated with negative affect.

cortical spreading depression (CSD)

wave of hyperpolarization that moves across the cortex at approximately 3.6 mm/minute and may be responsible for auras in migraine with aura instead of a separate vasoconstrictive process.

corticospinal tract

pyramidal motor pathway responsible for discrete control of fingers, hands, arms, trunk, and upper legs. The axons of upper motor neurons descend from the primary motor cortex to the medulla to directly or indirectly synapse with lower motor neurons in the ventral gray matter of the spinal cord.

corticothalamic network

unified network that generates diverse types of brain rhythms grouped by the cortical slow oscillations.

corticotropin (ACTH)

hormone released by the pituitary gland following CRH binding that triggers cortisol release by the adrenal cortex.

corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)

hormone released by the hypothalamus that triggers ACTH release by the pituitary gland.

cortisol

glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex that helps convert fat and protein to glucose and reduces inflammation.

coulomb

approximately 6.24 x 1018 or 6 billion billion electrons.

countershock phase

last part of Selye’s alarm stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome during which resistance increases due to increased activity by local defenses.

crocodile tears syndrome

profuse tear production when tasting strongly-flavored food. This is a complication of Bell palsy.

cross-correlation

the correlation between corresponding values of two or more signals at a specific frequency.

cross-talk artifact

in SEMG biofeedback, interference with recording at one site by muscle action potentials generated by another muscle.

cultivated low arousal

reduced activation of the central nervous system (EEG) and peripheral nervous system (autonomic and somatic).

curare

paralytic drug used by Miller and DiCara to prevent rats from “cheating” by using skeletal muscles during operant conditioning of heart rate, blood pressure, kidney blood flow, skin blood flow, and intestinal contraction.

current (I)the movement of electrons through a conductor measured in amperes (A).

cyanosis

in Raynaud’s, blue skin color reflects pooled deoxygenated blood due to minimal arteriole inflow and constricted venous outflow.

cybernetic model

explanation that biofeedback is like a thermostat system with a setpoint, system variable, and negative and positive feedback.

cybernetic theory

Weiner proposed that living systems are controlled by monitoring their results.

cyclic AMP

a second messenger that moves about the neuron, activating other enzymes. Protein kinase A, which controls the excitability of ion channels, is an important enzyme target of cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP also travels to the nucleus where it can regulate gene expression.

cynical hostility

individuals mistrust humanity and those they interact with. This attitude is associated with alcohol consumption, obesity, and smoking, which affect the development of heart disease.

cytokines (interleukins)

immune cell chemical messengers that can aid the action of cytotoxic T (Tc) and B cells, and macrophages.

cytotoxic T (Tc) cells

immune cells that release toxins to destroy specific virally-infected cells.

D2 receptors

Reduced activity in these postsynaptic dopamine receptors may produce a reward deficiency syndrome. Reduced activation of the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus may produce dysphoria, drug craving, and compulsive drug-seeking and abuse.

D4 gene

gene that may play a role in ADHD. Patients with altered D4 genes are characterized by novelty-seeking and impulsivity.

D-serine

neurotransmitter that binds to the glycine site on the NMDA receptor to trigger calcium entry into a dendritic spine when glutamate binds to its site, resulting in a large, prolonged increase in intracellular calcium.

Dale’s principle

incorrect view that a neuron can only release one neurotransmitter. They often release two to four.

DC offset artifact

ECG artifact that lengthens the IBI when differences in skin-electrode impedance produce signal drift can that causes software to miss beats.

deactivated states

in Barrett and Russell’s structural model, lower-intensity affective states like fatigue and calm are placed in the lower hemisphere.

decibel

logarithmic ratio of two measurements using the same unit of intensity or power. A ratio of 60 dB is 1000 to 1 and 100 dB is 100,000 to 1.

declarative memory

facts or information that you can consciously recollect and share with others.

deep muscle relaxation

voluntary reduction of skeletal muscle contraction, which may lower both cardiac output and plasma norepinephrine.

deep relaxation procedures

procedures like Autogenic Training, meditation, and Progressive Relaxation that may require 15 minutes to several hours, involve a break from routine activity, and profoundly reduce physiological arousal and reset physiological activity to healthier values.

defecation reflex

pressure on the rectal wall triggers the firing of sacral spine parasympathetic motor neurons that shortens the rectum, increasing pressure on fecal material and the internal anal sphincter, which involuntarily relaxes in response to parasympathetic stimulation, voluntary diaphragm and abdominal muscle contraction, and pressure.

defensive response

a very slowly habituating response pattern that limits harm from intense stimulation. This pattern includes (1) reduced sensory sensitivity, (2) a tendency to move away from the stimulus, (3) heart rate increase, and (4) both peripheral and cephalic vasoconstriction.

delta rhythm

EEG rhythm named by Walter that ranges from 0.05 to 3 Hz and is increased in adult Stage 3 sleep, brain injury, brain tumor, and developmental disability.

deltoid

synergist that along with the pectoralis major muscle anchors both the arm and shoulder when the biceps brachii (agonist) contracts to flex the forearm. Actives are located behind the angle of the acromion (posterior to the bony triangle at the top of the shoulder) for the posterior deltoid.

dendrite

branched structure designed to receive messages from other neurons via axodendritic synapses (junctions between axons and dendrites) which determine whether the axon hillock will initiate an action potential.

dendritic spines

protrusions on the dendrite shaft where axons typically form axodendritic synapses.

dendrodendritic synapses

junctions between dendrites that communicate chemically across synapses and electrically across gap junctions.

depolarize

to make the membrane potential more positive by making the inside of the neuron more positive with respect to its outside.

depressors

muscles that produce downward movement. For example, the pectoralis minor lowers the shoulder blades.

derivation

combination of electrodes used in a single amplifier channel (C3-A1).

dermis

inner layer of the skin that contains blood and lymph vessels, smooth muscle, and sebaceous and sweat glands.

descending pathways

pain-modulating systems that descend from the brain to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

detrusor muscle

The intermediate coat of the urinary bladder, which is composed of three smooth muscle layers.

diabetic neuropathy

diverse sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms due to peripheral nerve damage caused by diabetes mellitus.

diaphragm

dome-shaped muscle whose contraction enlarges the vertical diameter of the chest cavity and accounts for about 75% of air movement into the lungs during relaxed breathing.

diastole

period when the ventricles or atria relax.

diastolic blood pressure

the force applied against arteries during ventricular relaxation.

diathesis

inherited or acquired biological vulnerability. For example, obesity is a diathesis for diabetes.

diathesis-stress model

view that stressors interact with our inherited or acquired biological vulnerabilities, which are called diatheses, to produce medical and psychological symptoms.

differential amplifier

electronic amplifier that contains two single-ended amplifiers that are 180 degrees out of phase that amplifies the difference between two input voltages.

differential input impedance

the opposition to an AC signal entering a differential amplifier as it is dropped across a network of resistors.

differential relaxation

in progressive relaxation, the inhibition of unneeded muscle groups during routine activities.

differentiated pattern

Schwartz’s concept for an inverse change in autonomic responses. For example, blood pressure increase and heart rate decrease.

diffusion

the distribution of molecules from areas of high concentration to low concentration.

digital display

numeric display of signal amplitude, for example, a temperature display of 92° F (33.3° C).

digital filter

circuit that uses digital processors, like a digital signal processing (DSP) chip, to remove and/or enhance signal components.

dilation

increased lumen diameter.

diphasic wave

wave that contains both a negative and positive deflection from the baseline.

diplegia

paralysis of symmetrical parts of the body. In cerebral palsy (CP), paralysis affects both legs more often than both arms.

dipole

the electrical field generated between the sink (where current enters the neuron) and the source (place at the other end of the neuron where current leaves), which may be located anywhere along the dendrite.

direct action

in Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional Model of Stress, this is an active attempt to resolve a threat that may follow secondary appraisal. For example, enrolling in a cardiac rehabilitation program following a diagnosis of coronary artery narrowing.

direct current (DC)

electric current that flows in only one direction as in a flashlight.

directional fractionation

Lacey’s concept of a complex pattern of physiological response to a stimulus where some indices increase and others decrease. For example, when a NATO solider on guard duty in Afghanistan hears a noise, EEG and skin conductance may show arousal while heart rate decreases.

discrimination

perception of changes in physiological activity (0.5 microvolt versus 1 microvolt of SEMG activity) which is a crucial component of self-regulation

discriminative stimuli

in operant conditioning, the identifying characteristics of a situation (the physical environment and physical, cognitive, and emotional cues) that teach us when to perform operant behaviors. For example, a traffic slowdown could signal a client to practice effortless breathing.

diseases of adaptation

in Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome, depletion of adaptation energy theoretically results in adaptation syndromes like atrial tachycardia.

disposable electrodes

surface electrodes that are discarded after use to prevent transmission of infection.

distal

the point most distant from the attached end of a limb. In neuromuscular rehabilitation, training ends with extremities like the fingers or toes.

distress

Selye’s term for stress due to negative stimuli.

diuretics

drugs like Lasix (furosemide) that increase the rate of urination and loss of water and salt in the urine to reduce blood volume and blood pressure.

dominant frequency

EEG frequency with the greatest amplitude.

dopamine

monoamine neurotransmitter exerts its postsynaptic effects on at least six receptors, which are all linked to G proteins. This means that dopamine functions as a neuromodulator. The two major families include D1 (D1 and D5) and D2 (D2A, D2B, D3, and D4).

dorsal

toward the upper back or head.

dorsal columns

part of the dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system. These columns are located toward the back of each half of the spinal cord and innervated by sensory neurons that leave the dorsal root.

dorsal respiratory group (DRG)

neuron clusters in the medulla of the brainstem that collect information from peripheral stretch and chemoreceptors, and distributes this information to the VRG to modify its breathing rhythms.

dorsal root

the upper sensory root of a spinal nerve.

dorsal-column medial-lemniscal system

somatosensory pathway that distributes touch information through the dorsal columns to the brain.

dorsiflexors

muscles that point the toes toward the shin (superiorly) through flexion at the ankle joint. For example, the tibialis anterior dorsiflexes and inverts the foot during the swing phase of walking.

dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is concerned with approach behavior and positive affect. It helps us select positive goals, and organizes and implements behavior to achieve these goals. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex organizes withdrawal-related behavior and negative affect, and mediates threat-related vigilance. It plays a role in working memory for object location. Cortisol binding disrupts its operation.

dove strategy

passive, reactive, nonaggressive, and cautious response to stressors.

driver artifact

distortion of electrodermal measurements when a constant current system allows excessive current to irritate eccrine sweat glands.

drowsiness artifact

stage 1 or stage 2 sleep stage seen in the drowsy EEG as frontal theta or “thalpha” and spike-like transients (vertex or V-waves) produced by sleepiness.

drug model

explanation that biofeedback can be administered like doses of a drug, which ignores the role of skill mastery and the need to train clients to criteria.

dual-action antidepressants

medications that activate 5-HT1 receptors to produce antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, while they blockade 5-HT2 (agitation, restlessness, and sexual dysfunction) and 5-HT3 (nausea, headache, and vomiting) receptors to minimize their side effects.

dual relationship (also called multiple relationship)

situation where a healthcare provider and patient share multiple roles. For example, when a client is also an employee.

dummy subject

device consisting of two resistors that simulates the skin-electrode impedance of a human subject that is used to measure noise generated by the environment and instrument. For example, an SEMG dummy electrode.

dura mater

the outermost layer of the three meninges that protect the brain and spinal cord. Trigeminal nerve endings in this layer release proteins that dilate blood vessels and increase the nerves’ sensitivity.

dyslipidemia

elevated or abnormal lipid and/or lipoprotein levels in the blood. This contributes to atherosclerosis and hypertension.

dysponesis

Whatmore and Kohli’s concept of misplaced effort. For example, bracing your shoulders when you hear a loud sound.

dysrhythmias

arrhythmia.

dyssynergic defecation

difficulty evacuating stools.

early phase response of asthma

smooth muscle spasm and excessive mucus secretion, which obstruct the airways.

eccentric contraction

fibers lengthen as you lower yourself, for example, when performing a squat.

eccrine sweat glands

glands that respond to cognitive activity, emotion, and temperature, achieve thermoregulation (temperature control) through evaporative cooling, and are responsible for electrodermal activity.

ECG artifact

EEG or signal contamination by the field effect of the sharper (QRS-wave) components of the electrocardiogram. The frequency range for ECG artifact is 0.05-80 Hz, contaminating the delta through beta bands.

edema

swelling due to the abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid produced by excessive capillary filtration or inadequate fluid reabsorption. In cases of inflammation and allergic reactions, temperature biofeedback may help remove accumulated fluid from the edematose region by dilating peripheral arteries.

EEG activity

single wave or successive waves.

EEG power

signal energy in the EEG spectrum. The majority of EEG power falls within the 0-20 Hz frequency range. EEG power is measured in microvolts or picowatts.

EEG topography

procedure that simultaneously samples multiple EEG, performs Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis, and maps the cortical surface with color displays of EEG amplitude and frequency.

efferent

motoneuron that transmits information towards the periphery.

efferent nerves

nerves like alpha motor neurons that leave the central nervous system.

efficacy

effectiveness.

effortless breathing

Peper’s relaxed breathing method in the client uses about 70% of maximum effort, attention settles below the waist, and the volume of air moving through the lungs increases. The subjective experience is that “my body breathes itself.”

ejection fraction

ratio of blood pumped by the left ventricle during a contraction compared to its total filling volume.

elastic arteries

large arteries like the aorta that distribute blood from the heart to muscular arteries.

electrical synapse

symmetrical synapse where neurons communicate information bidirectionally across gap junctions between adjacent membranes using ions. Transmission across electrical synapses is instantaneous, compared with the 10 ms or longer delay in chemical synapses. The rapid information transmission that characterizes electrical synapses enables large circuits of distant neurons to synchronize their activity and simultaneously fire.

electrocardiogram (ECG)

recording of the electrical activity of the heart using an electrocardiograph.

electrocardiograph (ECG/EKG)

instrument that measures the electrical activity of the heart.

electrodermal activity (EDA)

skin electrical activity generated by eccrine sweat glands.

electrodermograph (EDA, GSR, SC, SP)

instrument that measures skin electrical activity generated by eccrine sweat glands.

electroencephalogram (EEG)

the voltage difference between at least two electrodes, where at least one electrode is located on the scalp or inside the brain. The EEG is a recording of both EPSPs and IPSPs that occur largely in dendrites in pyramidal cells located in macrocolumns, several mm in diameter, in the upper cortical layers

electroencephalograph (EEG)

instrument that measures brain electrical activity.

electrode

specialized conductor that converts biological signals like the EEG into currents of electrons.

electrode gel

electrically-conductance solution that is used to detect biological potentials (e.g., ECG, EEG and EMG) from the skin surface and to standardize electrodermal measurement.

electrode pop artifact

a sudden large deflection in at least one channel when there is a sudden change in the conduction characteristics of an electrode. The electrode may abruptly detach from the scalp or contact with a poorly-connected electrode may suddenly improve, sharply changing signal amplitude.

electrogoniometer

an electronic device that measures range of motion (ROM) by placing a potentiometer over the two bones that form a joint and converting voltage changes into changes in joint angle.

electrolyte

electrically-conductive medium that contains free ions.

electromagnetic interference (EMI) artifact

ECG artifact that is generated when cell phones transmit an artifactual voltage.

electromotive force (EMF)

a difference in electrical potential that “pushes” electrons to move in a circuit.

electromyograph (EMG/SEMG)

instrument that measures the muscle action potentials that initiate skeletal muscle contraction; called a surface electromyograph (SEMG) when sensors are placed on the skin surface.

electron

negatively-charged particle that rotates around the nucleus at varying distances and participates in chemical reactions.

electrooculogram (EOG) artifact

contamination of EEG and EMG recordings by potentials generated by eye blinks, eye flutter, and eye movements. The dipole of the EOG is due to electrical potential differences between the aqueous and vitreous humors of the eye, and not as commonly reported due to retinal and corneal electrical charges.

electrostatic artifact

artifactual voltages in EEG and EMG recording that are produced by static electricity.

electrostatic pressure

the attractive or repulsive force between ions that moves them from one region to another.

embolism

blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus (air bubbles, blood clots, fat, oil, or tumor cells, or their combination) that travels through the blood. Embolism is a cause of ischemic stroke.

EMG artifact (ECG)

artifact that shortens the IBI when signal contamination by the EMG causes software to detect nonexistent beats.

EMG artifact (EEG)

contamination of an EEG recording by volume-conducted signals from skeletal muscles. While strong contraction can increase the amplitude of all frequency bands, the beta rhythm is most affected by this artifact.

EMG biofeedback

display of a client’s muscle action potentials, which precede the mechanical contraction of a muscle, back to the individual.

emotional response specificity

hypothesis that primary emotions are associated with unique physiological changes.

empirical approach

data-guided strategy in which a therapist presents several procedures to a client, determines which procedure she prefers, and monitors subjective cognitive and physiological changes.

end-tidal CO2

the percentage of CO2 in exhaled air at the end of exhalation.

endocannabinoid

molecule related to THC that reduces the firing of afferent fibers that transmit information about pain to the spinal cord.

endorphin

endogenous opioid polypeptide secreted by the pituitary gland and hypothalamus and released synaptically by neurons.

endosomatic

from within the body. Skin potential is measured by detecting voltage differences between two electrodes on the skin surface.

endosomatic method

measurement of skin electrical activity by detecting differences in skin potential from locations on the skin surface.

energy level

one of an electron’s possible orbits around a nucleus at a constant distance.

enteric division

subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the gut and is innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches.

entorhinal cortex

structure located in caudal region of the temporal lobe and that receives pre-processed sensory information from all modalities and reports on cognitive operations. The entorhinal cortex provides the main input to the hippocampus, and is involved in memory consolidation, spatial localization, and provides input into the septohippocampal system that may generate the 4-7 Hz theta rhythm.

enzymatic deactivation

process in which an enzyme breaks a neurotransmitter apart into inactive fragments. For example, acetylcholine transmission is ended by the enzyme acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Deactivating enzymes, which are located in the synaptic cleft, degrade a neurotransmitter molecule when it detaches from its binding site.

epidermis

outer skin layer that is comprised by five layers (stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum germinativum).

epinephrine

adrenal medulla hormone that increases muscle blood flow and converts stored nutrients into glucose for use by skeletal muscles, and initiates cardiac muscle contraction when it binds to alpha1 receptors.

epigenetic

modification of gene expression due to environmental influences.

episodic memory

a subtype of declarative memory that provides contextual information (when, where, and sequencing) about events.

episodic (recurrent) pain

pain that has recurred for more than 3 months. Like acute pain, these episodes are brief. However, these episodes often produce psychological distress (like chronic pain) and patients may present with anxiety, depression, helplessness, and stress.

epoch

a signal sampling period, for example, a 30-s sample of EMG activity.

epoch number

a location in a session’s record. For example, epoch 52 is the 52nd 1-s epoch.

erectile dysfunction (ED)

the inability to either achieve or maintain an erection that will permit acceptable sexual performance.

erector spinae (sacrospinalis)

muscle that maintains erect position of the spine and extends the vertebral column. Active pairs are located lateral to the spine, above the iliac crest (rounded upper margins of the ilium bone above the buttocks) about L4 and below the bottom of the ribs at about L2.

ergonomic assessment

evaluation of workplace safety, comfort, ease of use, and worker capabilities, productivity and performance to improve safety, efficiency, and satisfaction.

ethics

the branch of philosophy that deals with moral issues.

eustress

Selye’s term for stress due to positive stimuli.

event-related potentials (ERP)

changes in brain activity in response to specific stimuli. ERPs can be detected throughout the cortex. Investigators detect ERPs by placing electrodes at locations like the midline (Fz, Cz, and Pz). A computer analyzes a subject’s EEG responses to the same stimulus or task over many trials to subtract random EEG activity. ERPs always have the same waveform morphology. Their negative and positive peaks occur at stable intervals following the stimulus.

event-related skin conductance response (ER-SCR)

skin conductance responses that are elicited by specific stimuli.

evertors

muscles that turn the sole of a foot outward. For example, extensor digitorum longus dorsiflexes, extends toes, and everts the foot.

evoked potential

event-related potential (ERP) elicited by external sensory stimuli (auditory, olfactory, somatosensory, and visual). An evoked potential has a negative peak 80-90 ms and positive peak about 170 ms following stimulus onset. The orienting response (“What is it?”) is a sensory ERP. The N1-P2 complex in the auditory cortex of the temporal cortex reveals whether an uncommunicative person can hear a stimulus.

evoked potential artifact (event related potential artifact)

somatosensory, auditory and visual signal processing-related transients that may contaminate multiple channels of an EEG record.

excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)

a brief positive shift in a postsynaptic neuron’s potential that is produced when neurotransmitters bind to receptors and cause positive, sodium ions to enter the cell. An EPSP pushes the neuron towards the threshold of excitation, when it can initiate an action potential.

exhaustion

third stage of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome during which increased endocrine activity depletes body resources and raises cortisol levels resulting in suppressed immunity, stress syndrome symptoms, and possible hospitalization and death.

exocrine glands

glands that secrete into ducts.

exocytosis

the process of neurotransmitter release. When an action potential arrives and depolarizes the terminal button, calcium ions enter the terminal button from the extracellular fluid and calcium binds with clusters of protein molecules that join the vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. The clusters move apart, forming a hole through both membranes called a fusion pore, and neurotransmitter leaves the terminal button for the synaptic cleft or extracellular fluid.

exogenous ERP

an event-related potential (ERP) elicited by external sensory stimuli (auditory, olfactory, somatosensory, and visual).

exosomatic

from outside the body. Skin conductance and skin resistance are measured by passing an electric current through the skin.

exosomatic method

measurement of skin electrical activity by passing an external current through the skin.

explicit learning

behavioral changes that occur with our conscious awareness that require processing by the hippocampus.

expressed anger

a component of hostility involving direct communication of anger. For example, raising your voice during an argument.

extensor carpi ulnaris

muscle that extends and adducts the hand at the wrist joint.

extensor digitorum longus

muscle that dorsiflexes, extends toes, and everts the foot.

extensor spasticity

excessive extensor muscle activity that starts about 6 months following spinal cord injury.

extensors

muscles that increase the angle between two bones. For example, the triceps brachii extends the forearm.

external anal sphincter (sphincter ani externus)

elliptically-shaped voluntary muscle that is tonically contracted to close the anal canal and orifice. Relaxation of this muscle expels feces, while constriction postpones defecation.

external intercostals

muscles of inhalation that pull the ribs upward and enlarge the thoracic cavity. The external intercostals account for about 25% of air movement into the lungs during relaxed breathing.

external urethral sphincter

voluntary ring of skeletal muscle, located at the distal aspect of the bladder in females and below the prostate in males, that controls urine flow through the urethra. Relaxation of this muscle allows urination, while contraction postpones it.

extinction (classical conditioning)

the weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response (CR) when it is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). For example, a client’s blood pressure rise (CR) decreases and then disappears after several painless dental visits (UCS).

extinction (operant conditioning)

the weakening and disappearance of an operant behavior when it is no longer reinforced. For example, a client reduces and then stops practicing the Quieting Response after she ceases to feel calm during this exercise.

extra beats

ECG artifact that shortens the IBI when signal distortion causes software to detect nonexistent beats.

extracellular dipole layers

macrocolumns of pyramidal cells, which lie parallel to the surface of the cortex, send opposite charges towards the surface and the deepest of the 5-7 layers of cortical neurons.

extracellular fluid

the fluid surrounding a neuron.

extrafusal fibers

skeletal muscle fibers that are striated (striped) due to alternating light and dark bands.

extrapyramidal motor system

motor pathway that controls bilateral, gross movements, and postural changes, and arises from neurons in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and reticular formation.

eye blink artifact

contamination of an EEG recording by high amplitude slow waves produced when the electrical dipole of the eye rotates near the adjacent electrodes.

eye flutter artifact

contamination of EEG recordings by voltages produced by vertical eye movements that can be confused with EEG findings such as frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA), or frontal midline theta FMT. Eye flutter is more rapid than eye blinks, with frequencies reported in involuntary eye flutter (nystagmus) up to 20 Hz.

eye movement artifact

deflections in an EEG recording when the dipole of the eye moves toward or away from an electrode in your montage.

fascia

fibrous connective tissue that divides muscles into functional groups, aids muscle movement, transmits force to bones, encloses and supports blood vessels and nerve fibers, and secures organs in their place.

fascicles

muscle fiber bundles.

fast cortical potentials

EEG rhythms that range from 0.5 Hz-100 Hz. The main frequency ranges include delta, theta, alpha, sensorimotor rhythm, and beta.

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis

an algorithm that decomposes a complex waveform into its component frequencies.

fast glycolytic (FG) fibers

white fibers are poor in myoglobin, mitochondria, and capillaries, but contain considerable stores of glycogen. FG fibers produce ATP using anaerobic metabolism that cannot continuously supply needed ATP causing these fibers to easily fatigue. They are also called fast twitch A fibers.

fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers

red fibers are rich in myoglobin, mitochondria, and capillaries. Their capacity to produce ATP through oxidative metabolism is high and FOG fibers split ATP rapidly producing high contraction velocities. They show less resistance to fatigue than SO fibers. They are also called fast twitch B fibers.

feature binding

the process of linking information to perceptual objects (linking an apple’s color to its shape) that may involve the 40-Hz rhythm.

fecal incontinence

the involuntary release of feces or gas due to loss of anal sphincter control.

feedback

in cybernetic theory, orders to perform an action to correct small errors to prevent larger future errors in a closed system.

feedback cane

rehabilitation device that uses a strain gauge to measure pressure applied to the cane when it is used to assist walking after hip replacement surgery or stroke. When the patient uses the cane inappropriately, a warning tone reminds the patient to bear more weight.

feedback helmet

positional biofeedback device that sounds a warning tone when a patient’s head deviates from normal posture. Clinicians use a feedback helmet to teach cerebral palsy (CP) patients to maintain normal head position.

feedback thermometer (TEMP)

instrument that measures relative peripheral blood flow and the temperature of the fingers and toes.

feedforward

in cybernetic theory, orders to perform an action based on anticipated conditions in an open system.

fiber optic cable

a thin flexible cable that transmits digital signals as pulses of light with the advantages of high-speed data transmission, electrical isolation, and resistance to electromagnetic interference.

fibrinogen

plasma protein that is transformed into fibrin to form blood clots.

fibromyalgia

chronic benign pain disorder that involves pain, tenderness, and stiffness in the connective tissue of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and adjacent soft tissue. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) adult criteria include widespread pain for at least 3 months on both sides of the body and pain during gentle palpation on 11 of 18 tender points on neck, shoulder, chest, back, arm, hip, and knee sites.

fight-or-flight response

Cannon’s response of confronting or fleeing a threat that occurs at the end of Selye’s alarm stage.

filter

electronic circuit that removes and/or enhances signal components.

finite impulse response (FIR)

digital filtering method.

first pain signal

sensation of sharp, brief pain carried by A-beta fibers that warns that damage has occurred.

fissures

deep grooves, for example, the lateral fissure.

fixed atrial fibrillation

supraventricular arrhythmia in which there is a fixed ratio of saw-toothed flutter waves to QRS complexes.

flaccid paralysis

weakness or loss of muscle tone due to injury or disease affecting lower motor neurons.

Flexeril (cyclobenzaprine)

centrally-acting muscle relaxant

flexor digitorum longus

muscle that plantar flexes, flexes toes, and inverts the foot.

flexor spasticity

excessive flexor muscle activity that starts 3-6 months after spinal cord injury.

flexors

muscles that decrease the angle between two bones. For example, the biceps brachii flexes and supinates (turns up) the forearm.

floating skin electrode

SEMG electrode that contains a recessed reservoir for electrode gel.

focal waves

EEG waves that are detected within a limited area of the scalp, cerebral cortex, or brain.

foot drop

failure to dorsiflex and evert the foot due to weakness or paralysis of dorsiflexor (tibialis anterior) and evertor (extensor digitorum longus) muscles of the foot and toes combined with spasticity in the plantar flexors (gastrocnemius). Abnormal gait is caused by neurologic (hemiplegia due to stroke), muscular, and/or structural problems.

foot ulcers

lesions of the feet due to neurologic and microvascular causes. Progressive damage to peripheral sensory nerves, called peripheral neuropathy, can reduce or eliminate sensation from the foot and/or leg so that patients are unaware of traumatic injuries for days or weeks.

force feedback

display of force conducted through the body or hand during work or exercise, or through a lower limb (force plate) or assistive device (feedback cane) to the client to teach normal position and movement.

force transducer

sensor that converts the force conducted through the body or hand during work or exercise into electrical signals.

Fp

designation for a frontopolar or prefrontal site in the International 10-10 (Fp1, Fpz, and Fp2) and 10-20 (Fp1 and Fp2) systems.

FpN placement

an active electrode is placed over a frontalis muscle and another over a cervical paraspinal muscle on the same side below the hairline.

free nerve ending

axon that projects to the skin without a specialized accessory structure and detects pain and temperature information.

frequency (Hz)

the number of complete cycles that an AC signal completes in a second, usually expressed in hertz.

frequency control

protocol that trains patients to increase the amplitude of one frequency (SMR) while suppressing another (theta). This procedure refines EEG control and may result in better clinical outcomes than amplitude control.

frequency synchrony

when identical EEG frequencies are detected at two or more electrode sites. For example, 12 Hz may be simultaneously detected at O1-A1 and O2-A2.

frontal lobes

the most anterior cortical lobes of the brain that are divided into the motor cortex, premotor cortex, and prefrontal cortex.

frontales

muscle that draws the scalp forward, raises eyebrows, and wrinkles the forehead. The actives are located between the eyebrows and hairline.

frontales placement

horizontal placement of SEMG over the two frontales muscles. The actives are centered over each eye with the reference above the nose.

frontalis or bifrontal placement

an active electrode is centered above each pupil, midway between the eyebrow and hairline.

full-wave rectifier

electronic device that changes the upper and lower halves of an AC signal into a positive DC signal.

functional disorders

medical disorders due to abnormal system function. For example, chronic abdominal pain due to stress.

functional MRI (fMRI)

magnetic resonance imaging procedure that can detect small changes in brain metabolism.

functional overdose

overdose that can occur when biofeedback training reduces a patient’s requirement for a drug. For example, biofeedback training may lower a patient’s blood pressure to the extent that the prescribed dose may produce hypotension and fainting.

fusion pore

a hole through a vesicle and presynaptic membrane that allows neurotransmitter to leave the terminal button for the synaptic cleft or extracellular fluid.

G protein

a protein located inside a neuron’s membrane next to a metabotropic receptor that is activated when the receptor binds a ligand. An alpha-subunit of the G protein then breaks away to perform actions within the cell.

GABA

an amino acid that is often inhibitory and that may be the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. There are several types of GABA receptors, each of which produces inhibition in a different way.

GABA-receptor

ionotropic receptor that is a protein composed of five subunits that form an ion channel and contain binding sites that are specialized for different substances (GABA and benzodiazepines).

GABA-B receptor

metabotropic receptor that is not well understood. Research indicates that its activation reduces the release of many neurotransmitters and hormones.

gamma rhythm

EEG activity from 35-45 Hz that changes when subjects learn to perceive meaningful patterns, like a Dalmatian concealed by a black and white background.

gap junction

an electrical synapse, which is a symmetrical synapse where neurons communicate information bidirectionally across gap junctions between adjacent membranes using ions. Transmission across electrical synapses is instantaneous, compared with the 10 ms or longer delay in chemical synapses. The rapid information transmission that characterizes electrical synapses enables large circuits of distant neurons to synchronize their activity and simultaneously fire.

gastrocnemius

muscle that plantar flexes the foot and flexes the knee joint. Spasticity in this muscle can interfere with detection of weak antagonists like the tibialis anterior. The actives are vertically centered over the bulges of either head of this muscle.

Gate-Control Theory of Pain

model that proposes cognitive-emotional mediation of pain and an interaction between ascending and descending pathways to modulate pain perception.

gel-bridge artifact

short circuit created when electrode gel smears and creates a bridge between closely-spaced active and reference electrodes, resulting in abnormally low readings.

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

Selye proposed that diverse stressors produce a three-stage (alarm, resistance, and exhaustion) autonomic and endocrine response in all subjects.

generalization

in operant conditioning, the performance of a behavior when a new discriminative stimulus is present. For example, a client learns to breathe effortlessly when anxious or experiencing pain.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

disorder characterized by excessive anxiety and worry, which frequently interfere with daily functioning.

generalized asynchronous slow waves

waves that are seen in sleepy children and those with elevated temperatures. In adults, this may indicate degenerative disease, dementia, encephalopathy, head injury, high fever, migraine, and Parkinson’s disease.

generalized hyperhidrosis

excessive sweating over the entire body surface due to autonomic dysregulation, metabolic disease, fever-inducing illness, or cancer.

generalized seizures

seizures characterized by a peculiar cry, loss of consciousness, falling, tonic-clonic convulsions of all extremities, incontinence, and amnesia for the episode. These were previously called grand mal seizures.

Gevirtz’s mediational model of muscle pain

perspective that lack of assertiveness and resultant worry each trigger sympathetic activation. Increased sympathetic efferent signals to muscle spindles and overexertion can produce a spasm in the intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindle, increasing muscle spindle capsule pressure and causing myofascial pain.

glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor

small protein that promotes the survival of dopaminergic and motoneurons, whose expression is increased by exercise.

glial cells

nonneural cells that guide, insulate, and repair neurons, and provide them with structural, nutritional, and information-processing support. Glial cells generate slow cortical potentials (SCPs). Glial cells include astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, radial glial cells, and Schwann cells.

glutamate

an amino acid that is often excitatory and that may be the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Its receptors are found of the surface of almost all neurons. There are at least 13 different receptors for glutamate, 5 ionotropic and 8 metabotropic. Most presynaptic neurons in the brain excite postsynaptic neurons via ionotropic glutamate receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. Metabotropic glutamate receptors may play a regulatory function, either augmenting or suppressing the activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors.

glycine

an amino acid that is often inhibitory and that has a binding site on the NMDA receptor.

gold disc electrodes

gold-plated electrodes that produce acceptable electrode noise.

Golgi tendon organs

force detectors that lie in series with skeletal muscle fibers. When excessive contraction threatens to damage muscle and tendon, they inhibit the responsible alpha motor neurons to prevent injury. This protective mechanism is called the tendon reflex.

goniometer

electrical or mechanical rehabilitation device that monitors joint angle to teach clients to increase their range of motion about a joint. An electrogoniometer represents a change in joint angle by altering its resistance to current.

gray matter

brain tissue that looks grayish brown and is comprised of cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, glial cells, and capillaries.

ground electrode

electrode placed over a less electrically-active site, for example, the earlobe or mastoid process.

ground fault interrupt circuit

protective device that opens a circuit—shutting down power—when current leakage exceeds 5 mA.

guanfacine (Tenex)

catecholamine agonist that may be combined with lower doses of methylphenidate (Ritalin) to increase treatment effectiveness supporting the norepinephrine hypothesis of ADHD.

gyroscope

device that measures rotational motion and is not influenced by gravity. This device is used to measure the variation in wrist movement (lap to table surface) and hand tremor.

gyrus

ridge of cortex demarcated by sulci or fissures, for example, the precentral gyrus.

H bands

components of a skeletal muscle fiber that only contain myosin filaments.

habit

behavior pattern often acquired through frequent repetition.

habituation

the weakening or disappearance of a response to a constant stimulus.

half-recovery time (rec t/2)

in an event-related skin conductance response (ER-SCR), the interval between SCR peak and 50% recovery of amplitude (2-10 seconds).

half-wave rectifier

electronic device that changes the upper or lower half of an AC signal into a positive DC signal.

hand-cooling

reduced peripheral blood flow that is mainly controlled by vasoconstricting sympathetic nerves that act on alpha-adrenergic receptors. Circulating hormones and local factors also reduce arteriolar diameter.

hand-warming

increased peripheral blood flow that is primarily due to circulating hormones and local vasodilators. There are no vasodilating nerves in the fingers, although they exist in the forearm.

harm

in Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional Model of Stress, damage that has already occurred. For example, a heart attack survivor may perceive harm as damage to the heart muscle.

hassle

minor stressful event, for example, waiting in a checkout line.

Hassles and Uplifts Scale

DeLongis, Folkman, and Lazarus’s revised 53-item scale that measured hassle frequency and intensity. This scale better predicted headache frequency and intensity and inflammatory bowel disease frequency than the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS).

Hassles Scale

Kanner and colleagues’ 117-item scale that measured negative daily experiences.

hawk strategy

proactive and bold response to stressors.

healthy computing

systems approach to treating computer-related disorder (CRD) that includes work style, ergonomics, somatic awareness, stress management, regeneration, vision care, fitness, and positive workstyle.

heart

hollow, muscular organ, about the size of a closed fist that contains four chambers (two ventricles and two atria) that function as two pumps.

heart rate

the number of heartbeats per minute, also called stroke rate.

heart rate variability (HRV)

beat-to-beat changes in heart rate that include changes in the RR intervals between consecutive heartbeats.

heaviness and warmth standard exercises

in autogenic training, exercises that teach clients the first two relaxation themes, heaviness and warmth, which are divided into seven parts.

helper T (TH) cells

Helper T (TH) cells release cytokines like interleukin-2 to aid the action of TC and B cells, and macrophages. TH cell cytokines can also suppress immune responses.

hemiplegia

paralysis of upper extremity, trunk, and lower extremity muscles on one side. Stroke can result in agonist spasticity (excessive muscle tone and tendon reflexes) and antagonist paresis (muscle weakness).

hemoglobin

red blood cell protein that carries oxygen throughout the circulatory system.

hertz (Hz

unit of frequency, an abbreviation for cycles per second.

high-frequency (HF) band

ECG frequency range from 0.15-0.40 Hz that represents the Inhibition and activation of the vagus nerve by breathing (respiratory sinus arrhythmia).

high frequency filter

electronic device attenuates frequencies above a cutoff. For example, a 35-Hz high frequency filter.

high-density lipoproteins (HDL)

protective type of lipoprotein that is increased by exercise and moderate alcohol consumption.

high-pass filter

electronic device that selects frequencies above a cutoff, for example, a 100 Hz high-pass filter.

hippocampus

limbic structure located in the medial temporal lobe that is involved in 4-7 Hz theta activity, control of the endocrine system’s response to stressors, formation of explicit memories, and navigation. Cortisol binding to this structure disrupts these functions, interferes with the creation of new neurons, and harms and kills hippocampal neurons.

hippocampal formation

limbic structure involved in control of the endocrine system’s response to stressors, formation of explicit memories, and navigation. Cortisol binding to this structure disrupts these functions, interferes with the creation of new neurons, and harms and kills hippocampal neurons.

histamine

biogenic amine that is often released during allergic reactions to food, reducing blood oxygen saturation by constricting vessels and directly affecting red blood cell transport of oxygen. Histamine produces swelling and binds to nociceptors and increases their firing rate, worsening pain. Histamine may cause hyperventilation.

homeostasis

state of dynamic constancy achieved by stabilizing conditions about a setpoint, whose value may change over time, proposed by Bernard and Cannon.

homeostat

device that maintains homeostasis. For example, the hypothalamus.

hopelessness

depressive symptom that might be an independent heart attack risk factor.

hostility

negative attitude towards individuals that may persist for a long time.

hot reactors

Eliot’s category of individuals who risk sudden death due to pathological acute and chronic responses to stressors.

HR Max – HR Min

index of heart rate variability that calculates the difference between the highest and lowest heart rates during each respiratory cycle.

HRV triangular index

geometric measure based on 24-hour recordings that divides the number of NN intervals by the number of NN intervals found within the modal 8-millisecond bin.

hubs

highly centralized nodes through which other node pairs communicate; hubs allow efficient communication.

humoral immunity

rapid immune response mediated by B lymphocytes, which produce antibodies that counter bacteria into the blood, neutralize their toxins, and prevent reinfection by viruses.

hyperactivity

excessive motor activity for a situation like the classroom, including fidgeting, leaving a seat, and climbing or running.

hyperalgesia

mildly painful stimuli are perceived as severely painful.

hyperglycemia

elevated blood sugar that can be produced by chronic high levels of cortisol.

hyperhidrosis

constant and excessive sweating often without obvious triggers, from the palms and soles, and less frequently from the armpits, chest, and back.

hyperinsulinemia

abnormally high blood levels of insulin that may be produced by chronic high levels of cortisol, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or insulin resistance. This contributes to atherosclerosis and hypertension.

hyperpolarize

a negative shift in membrane potential (the inside becomes more negative with respect to the outside) due to the loss of positive ions or gain of negative ions.

hyperreflexia

extreme reactivity and exaggeration of reflexes that can lead to spastic paralysis following corticospinal tract damage and spasticity following extrapyramidal system damage.

hypertension

elevated blood pressure where systolic blood pressure exceeds 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure exceeds 90 mmHg.

hypertrophy

excessive muscle enlargement following stroke. Antagonist muscles may be overpowered by an enlarged agonist.

hyperventilation

rapid breathing and breathlessness reduce end-tidal CO2 below 5%, exceeding the body’s need to eliminate CO2.

hyperventilation syndrome (HVS)

respiratory disorder that has been increasingly reconceptualized as a behavioral breathlessness syndrome in which hyperventilation is the consequence and not the cause of the disorder. The traditional model that hyperventilation results in reduced arterial CO2 levels has been challenged by the finding that many HVS patients have normal arterial CO2 levels during attacks.

hypnosis

procedure that can aid therapy, for example, hypnotically-assisted psychotherapy.

hypnotherapy

controversial term that implies that hypnosis is a therapy like cognitive behavior therapy.

hypnotic induction

from Hilgard’s perspective, the promotion of an altered state of consciousness called a hypnotic state.

hypnotic suggestibility

responsiveness to suggestion, which is measured by instruments like the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales, appears to be distributed along a bell-shaped curve.

hypodermis

region below the dermis that consists of connective tissue that contains the secretory portion of sweat glands, and blood and lymph vessels.

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

hormonal cascade that starts with signals from the amygdala to the hypothalamus and ultimately targets the adrenal glands, releasing the hormones CRH, ACTH (corticotropin), and cortisol.

hypothalamus

forebrain structure located below the thalamus that dynamically maintains homeostasis through its control of the autonomic nervous system, endocrine system, survival behaviors, and interconnections with the immune system.

hypotonic

decreased muscle tone. This results in muscle weakness and joint instability in the ataxic subtype of cerebral palsy.

I bands

components of a skeletal muscle fiber that are comprised of actin filaments.

idiographic approach

research strategy that emphasizes individual differences.

idiopathic spasmodic torticollis (IST)

neurodegenerative disease that destroys dopaminergic neurons in basal ganglia circuits, which disinhibits projections from the thalamus to the cortex and produces postural dystonia. These patients typically deviate the head to one side with slight neck flexion and physical therapy may incorporate SEMG biofeedback.

iliac crest

rounded upper margins of the ilium bone above the buttocks.

ilium

bone located above the buttocks.

illness onset training

Engel’s protocol in which he taught patients to produce and then suppress a symptom like premature ventricular contractions (PVCs).

impedance (Z)

complex opposition to an AC signal measured in Kohms.

impedance meter

device that measures skin-electrode impedance by using an AC signal run between active and reference electrodes.

impedance test

automated or manual measurement of skin-electrode impedance.

impulsivity

failure to restrain behavior, including answering before a question is completed, interrupting others’ conversations or play, and an inability to wait for one’s turn.

inattention

difficulty in sustaining attention, including distractibility, poor attention to detail, careless mistakes, forgetfulness, and loss of assignments and toys.

incentive inspirometer

a calibrated cylinder with a piston that moves upward as the patient inhales and indicates the volume of air inhaled in a single breath (the incentive).

individual differences

variability among clients and research subjects. Age, race, lability-stability, and stage of the menstrual cycle influence EDA.

informed consent

written statement in which participants voluntarily confirm their willingness to participate in a research study following disclosure of all aspects of the study relevant to their decision to participate.

inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

brief negative shift in a postsynaptic neuron’s potential that is produced when cations like potassium leave a neuron or anions (negative ions) like chloride enter a neuron, which hyperpolarize the cell. An IPSP pushes the neuron away from the threshold of excitation.

inion

bony prominence on the back of the skull.

insertion

the more movable bone at a joint.

instrumental learning

operant conditioning, an unconscious associative learning process that modifies the form and occurrence of voluntary behavior by manipulating its consequences.

insula

also called insular cortex, is a structure deep within the lateral sulcus. The anterior aspect is limbic-associated cortex and generates a sensation and conscious emotional experience about the body’s current state.

insulator

material that resists the flow of electricity like glass and rubber.

insulin resistance

a condition in which higher-than-normal insulin levels are required to maintain normal blood glucose levels. This contributes to atherosclerosis and hypertension.

integrated pattern

Schwartz’s concept for autonomic change in the same direction. For example, blood pressure increase and heart rate increase.

integrating center

in cybernetic theory, the site that receives sensory input. For example, the hypothalamus is the primary integrating center in the human body.

integration

the addition of EPSPs and IPSPs at the axon hillock. Neurons sum EPSPs and IPSPs over their surface in spatial integration and over ms of time in temporal integration to raise the membrane from its resting potential to the threshold of excitation. EPSPs and IPSPs last from 15-200 ms, while action potentials take place in 1-2 ms.

integrator

circuit that calculates rectified signal voltage.

intention tremor

quivering that appears or worsens when a patient attempts coordinated movement. Causes include alcohol intoxication, prescription drugs, and focal lesions that disrupt the cerebellar hemispheres.

intentional formulae

in autogenic training, autogenic modification procedures, which may be reinforcing or neutralizing, are used to increase or decrease behaviors.

interbeat interval (IBI)

the time interval between the peaks of successive R-spikes (initial upward deflection in the QRS complex). The IBI is also called the NN (normal- to-normal) interval.

intermittent claudication

cramping leg pain triggered by exercises like walking.

internal anal sphincter (sphincter ani internus)

muscular ring of involuntary muscle. Relaxation of this muscle helps external anal sphincter expel feces, while contraction postpones defecation.

internal urethral sphincter

involuntary ring of smooth muscle around the urethra’s opening controlled by parasympathetic fibers. Relaxation of this muscle allows urination, while contraction postpones it.

International 10-10 system

modified combinatorial system for electrode placement that expands the 10-20 system to 75 electrode sites to increase EEG spatial resolution and improve detection of localized evoked potentials.

International 10-20 system

standardized procedure for placement of 21 recording and one ground electrode on adults.

interneurons

neurons that receive input from and distribute output to other neurons. They have short processes and are confined to the central nervous system. They provide the integration required for decisions, learning and memory, perception, planning, and movement.

interoception

perception of the body’s interior (pain and pressure).

interoceptive and anterior insular cortex

structure deep within the lateral sulcus. The anterior aspect is limbic-associated cortex and generates a sensation and conscious emotional experience about the body’s current state.

interstitial fluid

fluid between cells through which biological signals travel via volume conduction.

intracellular fluid

the watery cytoplasm contained within a neuron.

intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)

the release of blood into the brain due to brain trauma or hemorrhagic stroke.

invertors

muscles that turn the sole of a foot inward.

ion

a charged atom or molecule with a positive or negative charge. Positive ions are called cations and negative ions are called anions.

ionotropic receptor

receptor protein that contains a binding site for a ligand and an ion channel that opens when the neurotransmitter attaches to this site.

ipsilateral

structures that are located on the same side of the body. For example, the left olfactory bulb distributes axons to left hemisphere.

ipsilateral system

in Boucsein’s model of EDA control, a system that controls the sweat gland activity of the hand on the same side of the brain. The ipsilateral system involves the cingulate gyrus, anterior thalamus, and hypothalamus. This system expresses limbic system (LS) activity through control of thermoregulatory areas in the hypothalamus, and mediates the emotional contribution to electrodermal activity.

irregular waves

successive waves that constantly alter their shape and duration.

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

syndrome in which patients respond to stressors with alternating diarrhea and constipation, associated with abdominal pain, cramping, excessive mucus in the feces, flatulence, loss of appetite, and nausea.

isometric contraction

contraction in which muscles produce tension with minimal fiber shortening.

isotonic contraction

contraction in which muscles produce movement by exerting tension on an attached structure (bone).

joint angle

the angle between the longitudinal axes of two adjoining body parts. Rehabilitation therapists monitor this variable using goniometers to train clients to increase their range of motion (knee extension or wrist pronation).

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)

form of rheumatoid arthritis that appears before 16 years.

Kaiser-Scott protocol (Scott-Kaiser modification)

intervention that starts with NF ADHD training and then progresses to the Peniston protocol.

kappa rhythm

bursts of alpha or theta and is detected over the temporal lobes of subjects during cognitive activity.

key muscle hypothesis

discredited proposition that a single muscle indexes activity in other muscle groups.

labiles

individuals who show higher resting SCLs and larger SCRs, and more rapid responses to stimuli and return to resting levels than stabiles. Labiles may better respond to changing environmental demands and better allocate attentional resources to environmental events.

lambda waves

saw-toothed transient waves from 20-50 microvolts and 100-250 ms in duration detected over the occipital cortex during wakefulness. These positive deflections are time-locked to saccadic movements and observed during visual scanning, as during reading.

Laplacian montage

combination of derivations that adds all remaining 10-20 electrodes (weighted by their distance from the single active electrode) in each amplifier’s physical or virtual input 2 and compares each electrode in physical or virtual input 1 against this reference signal. Allows good detection of localized EEG activity, but poor detection of widely distributed EEG activity.

large movement break

leaving the computer and moving around every 20 minutes.

late phase response of asthma

inflammation, scar tissue formation, fluid accumulation, and death of the epithelial cells that line the bronchioles. Mast cells and eosinophils in the bronchioles of the lungs release several chemical mediators, including histamine, immunoglobulin E (IgE), leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxane, and platelet-activating factor.

latency

in an event-related skin conductance response (ER-SCR), the interval between the stimulus and SCR onset, which is 1-3 seconds.

lateral

to the side, away from the center, as in the lateral geniculate nucleus.

lateral group

descending pathway from the primary motor cortex (the corticospinal, corticobulbar, and rubrospinal tracts) that helps execute its motor programs.

lateral head of triceps brachii

muscle that extends the elbow joint.

lateral nucleus of the amygdala

nucleus that processes sensory information and distributes it throughout the amygdala.

lateralized waves

waves that are primarily detected on one side of the scalp and that may indicate pathology.

latissimus dorsi

muscle that extends, adducts, rotates the arm, and moves the arm inferiorly and posteriorly. The actives are centered actives under the inferior angle of the scapula (shoulder blade).

law of initial values

Wilder’s proposition that the size of our response to a stimulus depends on a physiological variable’s starting value. This principle has only been demonstrated for heart rate, respiration rate, and skin resistance.

Layers I-III

cortical layers that receive afferent corticocortical fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres.

Layer III

the cortical layer that is the main source of efferent corticocortical fibers.

Layer IV

the cortical layer that is the primary destination of thalamocortical afferents and intra-hemispheric corticocortical afferents.

Layer V

the cortical layer that is the primary origin of efferent fibers that target subcortical structures that have motor functions.

Layer VI

the cortical layer that projects corticothalamic efferent fibers to the thalamus, which together with the thalamocortical afferents, creates a dynamic and reciprocal relationship between these two structures.

learning

the process by which we acquire new information, patterns of behavior, or skills.

left atrium

upper chamber of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins and pumps it to the left ventricle.

left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

division of the prefrontal cortex that is concerned with approach behavior and positive affect. It helps us select positive goals, and organizes and implements behavior to achieve these goals.

left ventricle

bottom chamber of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it through the aorta.

left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)

the percentage of the total blood in the heart’s left ventricle that is pumped out with each heartbeat.

levators

muscles that produce upward movement. For example, the levator scapulae elevates the shoulder blades.

level

tonic measure of electrodermal activity that quantifies the average amplitude over a specified period of time.

level detection

device that decides whether the signal voltage matches the threshold setting to activate a feedback display.

Level One interventions

interventions that a client can develop and implement to restore disrupted biological rhythms.

Level Two interventions

interventions that teach basic skills needed for psychological and physical health, which may be taught using educational and community resources

Level Three interventions

interventions that build on the first two levels and are generally managed by professionals.

Lewis’ local fault hypothesis

Raynaud’s explanation that resistance vessels that precede the capillaries overreact to local cooling. This hypothesis is better supported than Raynaud’s sympathetic overactivity hypothesis.

licensure

legal permission granted to a professional to practice a profession.

lifestyle modification

changes in routine behavior like diet, exercise, and sleep to help achieve treatment goals.

light artifact

PPG artifact when light leakage increases BVP amplitude.

limb load monitor (LLM)

force feedback device used to train hemiplegic patients to balance their weight distribution (rising from a chair, sitting, and standing) and to shift weight during the “stance phase” of walking. A force transducer can be inserted in a shoe or placed inside a platform.

line current artifact

frequencies at 50/60Hz and their harmonics produced by AC devices can contaminate EEG, ECG, or SEMG recordings. A fluorescent light can create false SEMG voltages.

linked-ears reference

two earlobe reference electrodes that are electrically linked and/or linked in the software.

local synchrony

synchrony that occurs when high-amplitude EEG signals are produced by the coordinated firing of cortical neurons.

localized hyperhidrosis

excessive sweating from a specific area of the body may be due to abnormal regrowth of damaged sympathetic axons, an abnormal number or arrangement of eccrine sweat glands, or other vascular abnormalities.

localized slow waves

waves that may indicate a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke, migraine, mild head injury, or tumors above the tentorium. Deep lesions result in bilateral or unilateral delta.

locomotor system

in Hugdahl’s model of EDA control, this system consists of the premotor cortex, pyramidal tract, and brainstem, and hydrates the soles of the feet and palms of the hands to increase running speed and hand dexterity.

locus coeruleus

noradrenergic branch of the ascending reticular activating system, which is responsible for vigilance. Subnormal norepinephrine transmission may contribute to ADHD.

locus of control

Rotter’s concept of a continuum of control of outcomes where internals attribute outcomes to their own efforts and externals attribute them to external events. This concept overlaps with the concepts of mastery, perceived control, and self-efficacy.

logarithmic display

display of the logarithm of a biofeedback signal that features greater resolution at the lower end of the scale.

longissimus capitis

muscle that helps extend and rotate the head to the same side as the contracting muscle and that is retrained following cervical injury.

long-latency potentials

potentials that have extended latencies following stimulus onset, for example, P300 and N400 ERPs.

long-term memory

memory, which can be declarative or nondeclarative, that lasts from days to years.

long-term depression (LTP)

a persistent decrease in synaptic strength following low-frequency stimulation.

long-term potentiation (LTP)

a persistent increase in synaptic strength following high -frequency stimulation.

low-density lipoproteins (LDL)

potentially harmful form of lipoprotein, especially when the particles are small, that is decreased by exercise and moderate alcohol consumption.

low-frequency (LF) band

ECG frequency range of 0.04-0.15 Hz that may represent the influence of PNS, SNS, and baroreflex activity (when breathing at resonance frequency).

lower motor neurons

alpha and gamma motoneurons that connect the brainstem and spinal cord to skeletal muscle fibers.

low-pass filter

electronic device that selects frequencies below a cutoff, for example, a 200 Hz low-pass filter or below 1 Hz in a feedback thermometer.

lymphocytes

white blood cells, including T cells, B cells, and natural killer (Nk) cells, that play a crucial role in immune defenses.

M lines

components of a skeletal muscle fiber that are made up of vertical connections between myosin filaments mediated by proteins like myomesin.

macrocolumns

circuits of cortical pyramidal neurons several mm in diameter that create extracellular dipole layers, parallel to the surface of the cortex, that send opposite charges towards the surface and the deepest of the 5-7 layers of cortical neurons. Since the pyramidal neurons are all aligned with the cortical surface, the postsynaptic potentials at cells within the same macrocolumn add together because they have the same positive or negative charge, and the macrocolumns fire synchronously.

Malpighian layer

deepest layer of the epidermis. Sweat glands are normally filled to this layer.

mandible

jaw.

manometric flame

device developed by Koenig and studied by Alexander Graham Bell for teaching the deaf to speak that displayed sounds as patterns of light.

manometry system

anorectal probe that places one of three balloons in the anal canal to simulate movement of fecal material, one adjacent to the internal rectal sphincter, and one adjacent to the external rectal sphincter. As the anal canal balloon is inflated, the contraction of the internal and external rectal sphincters is displayed.

mass activation

simultaneous stimulation of adjacent ganglia (cell bodies) in the sympathetic chain allows the sympathetic nervous system to produce many coordinated changes at once. For example, increased heart rate, respiration rate, and sweat gland activity.

massed practice

compression of training sessions into a brief period of time like 10 sessions in 2 weeks.

masseter

muscle that elevates and protracts the mandible. The masseter is down-trained in temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMJD). The actives are located using the angle of the jaw as a landmark.

mastery

the relatively stable expectancy that we can control our personal outcomes. This concept overlaps with the concepts of locus of control, perceived control, and self-efficacy.

mastery model

Shellenberger and Green’s (1986) explanation that compares biofeedback training to coaching an athletic skill.

mastoid

bulge behind the outer ear.

medial

toward the center of the body, away from the side. For example, the medial geniculate nucleus.

medial epicondyle

medial prominence of the bottom aspect of humerus located on the inside of the elbow.

medial lemniscus pathway

brainstem pathway that distributes sensory information from the gracile and cuneate nuclei to the thalamus.

medial prefrontal cortex

division of the prefrontal cortex that integrates cognitive-affective information and helps control the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis during emotional stress.

median nerve

nerve within the carpal tunnel that is compressed in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS).

medium-sized muscular arteries

arteries like the brachial artery that receive blood from elastic arteries and distribute blood throughout the body.

medulla

brainstem structure that regulates blood pressure, defecation, heart rate, respiration, and vomiting, the autonomic nervous system and distributes signals between the brain and spinal cord. The medulla contains a cardiovascular center that projects sympathetic cardiac accelerator and parasympathetic vagus (X) nerves.

Melzack’s neuromatrix model

perspective that a widely-distributed neural network responds to sensory stimulation and generates a signal that the body is intact and one’s own. When there are no sensory signals from the periphery, this neurosignature produces the false perception that the patient still has a limb, even after amputation.

membrane potential

a neuron’s electrical charge created by a difference in ion distribution within and outside the neuron. A typical resting potential is about -70 millivolts (thousandths of a volt), since the inside of a resting axon is more negatively charged than the outside.

memory

the capacity to store and retrieve new information.

memory B cells

lymphocytes that are transformed into antigen-specific plasma cells when they reencounter the original antigen.

meninx (plural, meninges)

protective tissue layer that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

meniscectomy

surgical removal of torn knee fibrocartilage.

Menninger alpha-theta protocol

procedure that helps clients increase their attention through temperature and frontal SEMG training and then teaches clients to gradually slow the EEG until they can increase alpha and theta amplitude without falling asleep.

Menninger ON-OFF-ON EEG training

procedure that teaches clients to increase the amplitude within a frequency band, reduce the amplitude, and then increase the amplitude again during 100 s or 200 s segments. For example, clients may be instructed to increase 8-13 Hz alpha activity for 100 s, decrease it for 100 s, and then increase it for 100 s.

mesocortical neurons

dopaminergic neurons that project from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain to the prefrontal cortex and excite prefrontal cortical neurons that control working memory, planning, and strategy preparation for problem solving. Underactivity in this pathway is associated with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia like attentional deficits.

metabolic acidosis

pH imbalance in which the body has accumulated excessive acid and has insufficient bicarbonate to neutralize its effects. In diabetes and kidney disease, hyperventilation is an attempt to compensate for abnormal acid-base balance and slower breathing could endanger health.

metabotropic receptors

include all G protein-linked receptors located on neurons, including autoreceptors. Neurotransmitters that bind to G protein-linked receptors are often called neuromodulators. Metabotropic receptors, which indirectly control the cell’s operations, expend energy, and produce slower, longer-lasting, and more diverse changes than ionotropic receptors. Their effects can last several seconds, instead of milliseconds, because of the long-lived activity of G proteins and cyclic AMP.

methylphenidate (Ritalin)

the most widely prescribed drug for ADHD increases locus coeruleus norepinephrine transmission and prefrontal cortical dopamine levels and probably operates on the serotonergic raphe system.

metrifonate

drug that produces long-lasting inhibition of AChE, which may slow the cognitive decline of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s patients.

mho

unit of conductance replaced by the siemen.

microbiome

the collection of the microorganisms that reside in the human body.

micro-break

1 to 2-s interruption of muscle activation (like the release of forearm muscle activity when a typist reaches the end of a paragraph) about every minute.

microglia

glial immune cell that removes dead or injured cells and releases BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor).

microsiemen (uS)

unit of conductance that is one-millionth of a siemen.

microtubules

hollow cylindrical protein bundles that are involved in axoplasmic transport.

microvolt (uV)

unit of amplitude (signal strength) that is one-millionth of a volt.

micturition center

located in segments S2 and S3 of the sacral spinal cord, it triggers the micturition reflex following the arrival of signals from bladder wall stretch receptors.

micturition reflex

when bladder volume exceeds 200-400 ml, the micturition center signals the detrusor muscle to contract and the internal urethral sphincter to relax, and blocks contraction of the external urethral sphincter, causing it to relax.

midline (z)

designation for sites along the central axis from nasion to inion in the International 10-10 and 10-20 systems.

migraine equivalent

prodromes without headaches.

migraine generator

a hypothesized circuit in the dorsal raphe nucleus in the upper brainstem activates the trigeminal nerve, whose extensive branches cover the brain “like a helmet” and initiate the migraine.

migraine with aura (classic migraine)

vascular headache that features a prodrome or neurological symptoms that precede a breakthrough headache, hours to days before headache onset, and accounts for up to 31% of all migraine patients.

migraine without aura (common migraine)

vascular headache that is not preceded by a prodrome that accounts for about 64% of all migraine patients and lasts 4-72 hours.

migrainous infarction (complicated migraine)

vascular headache with neurologic symptoms that often follow a definite sequence. This headache involves less than 1-2% of migraineurs and includes hemiplegic, ophthalmoplegic, and basilar migraine.

milliampere (mA)

unit of electrical current that is one-thousandth of an ampere.

millivolt (mV)

unit of amplitude (signal strength) that is one-thousandth of a volt.

mindfulness

nonjudgmental focus of attention on the present on a moment-to-moment basis.

missed beats

ECG artifact that lengthens the IBI when signal distortion causes software to overlook a beat and use the next good beat.

mixed incontinence

the involuntary loss of urine that results from stress and urge incontinence. The detrusor is overactive and the urinary sphincters are weak.

modeling effect

a therapist’s breathing behaviors influence patient breathing.

modulating effects

neuromodulators like the monoamines alter the performance of diffuse networks of target neurons by indirectly controlling cellular operations when they bind to metabotropic receptors.

module

set of interconnected nodes in a neural network.

monoamine neurotransmitters

amine neurotransmitters that include dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine (catecholamines) and serotonin (indoleamine). These neurotransmitters are released using volume transmission and generally have modulating effects, altering the performance of diffuse networks of target neurons.

monoamine oxidase (MAO)

an enzyme that degrades and inactivates the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

antidepressant drugs that interfere with MAO’s breakdown of monoamines and increase monoamine availability in an effort to treat clinical depression.

monophasic negative SPRs

skin potential response (SPR) that has one negative limb.

monophasic wave

either a single negative (upward) or positive (downward) deflection from baseline; in skin potential response (SPR), a negative or positive voltage.

monoplegia

rare paralysis that involves an arm or leg. Monoplegia is found in the spastic subtype of cerebral palsy.

monopolar method

recording method that uses one active and one ground electrode. The active electrode is placed over a site that is an EEG generator and the ground electrode is placed over sites like earlobes that are less electrically active.

monopolar recording

recording method that uses one active and one reference electrode.

monosynaptic stretch reflex

reflex that maintains postural muscle tone and stabilizes limb position by correcting increases in muscle length.

montage

a single channel or a combination of channels (derivations) to detect localized or global EEG activity.

montage reformatting

data analysis where software references an electrode site to other sites or combinations of sites.

motion sickness

unpleasant state, which can include physiologic vertigo, nausea, and malaise, in response to discrepant input between the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems.

motivational-affective component

the unpleasantness of a painful stimulus is processed in the anterior cingulate cortex of the frontal lobe.

motor cortex

subdivision of the frontal lobe that is located in the precentral gyrus and guides fine motor coordination (like writing).

motor ERPs

event-related potentials detected over the primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus) during movement and their amplitude is proportional to the force and rate of skeletal muscle contraction.

motor neurons

efferent neurons that convey commands to glands, muscles, and other neurons.

motor unit

alpha motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers it controls.

movement artifact

high-amplitude signals produced by patient movement that displaces the electrode cable that contaminates SEMG recordings; ECG and PPG artifact that shortens the IBI when signal distortion from movement causes software to detect nonexistent beats.

movement artifact (EEG)

contamination of an EEG recording (especially the delta and theta bands) by high-frequency and high-amplitude voltages produced by sudden limb and electrode cable movements.

movement-related potentials (MRPs)

slow cortical potentials that occur at 1 second as subjects prepare for unilateral voluntary movements. MRPs are distributed bilaterally with maximum amplitude at Cz. The supplementary motor area and primary motor and somatosensory cortices primarily generate these potentials.

mu receptor

opioid receptor that strongly binds enkephalins and beta-endorphins, but weakly binds dynorphins. Morphine and codeine bind to this receptor.

mu rhythm

arch-shaped waves that range from 7-11 Hz with amplitudes typically below 50 uV that are detected over Cz and Pz in waking subjects. These waves are seen in the healthy EEG records of 7% of the population. While these waves resemble alpha, they contain sharp positive transients and curved negative segments. Mu waves are blocked or reduced by exposure to a tactile stimulus, planning to move, readiness to move, or moving a contralateral limb (making a fist).

multi-modal strategy

intervention that contains several treatment components.

multiple effector systems

in cybernetic theory, multiple control systems. For example, the hypothalamus regulates homeostasis through its control over the autonomic nervous system, endocrine system, immune system, and somatic nervous system.

multiple sclerosis (MS)

progressive and widespread destruction of the myelin sheaths that insulate axons, which short-circuits conduction and produces cognitive, motor, and sensory impairment.

multiple spike-and-slow-wave complex

multiple spikes associated with at least one slow wave.

multiunit smooth muscle

muscle found in the walls of large arteries, airways to the lungs, the arrector pili muscles that move hair follicles, the muscle rings of the iris, and the ciliary body that focuses the lens.

muscarinic receptors

metabotropic ACh receptors that are stimulated by muscarine and blocked by atropine. Muscarinic receptors control smooth muscle and predominate in the CNS. In the CNS, muscarinic receptors help mediate learning, memory, attention, arousal, EEG, and postural control.

muscle action potential (MAP)

skeletal muscle depolarization that produces the SEMG signal and initiates skeletal muscle contraction.

muscle co-contraction

SEMG levels in one muscle increase from baseline during the contraction of another muscle, for example, when head rotation increases vastus medialis SEMG activity.

muscle spindles

stretch receptors that lie in parallel with skeletal muscle fibers, detect muscle length, tension, and pressure, and trigger the monosynaptic stretch reflex.

muscle-tendon transfer

surgical procedure that repositions a tendon so that an attached muscle can be reoriented and produce a new movement when there is permanent muscle injury or paralysis.

musculoskeletal weakness

inability to generate normal muscular strength due to diverse causes including brain tumor, stroke, spinal cord damage, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diabetes, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and Duchenne’s disease.

myelinated axons

axons that are insulated by myelin by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.

myelogram

x-ray of nerves using an injected contrast medium to assess nerve damage.

myoepithelial cells

cells that line the coils of the secretory portion of a sweat gland that produce sweat and may contribute to spontaneous electrodermal activity.

Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS)

regional pain disorder that is characterized by trigger points, which are hyperirritable regions of taut bands of skeletal muscle in the muscle belly or associated fascia (connective tissue).

myofibrils

each skeletal muscle fiber is composed of hundreds to thousands of these units that are built from thin and thick filaments.

myofilaments

building blocks of a myofibril. Thin filaments are mainly composed of actin and thick filaments are mainly composed of myosin.

myomesin

structural protein that comprises a sarcomere’s M line, binds to titin, and connects adjacent thick filaments.

N1-P2

a sensory event-related potential in the auditory cortex of the temporal cortex that reveals whether an uncommunicative person can hear a stimulus.

N400 potential

an event-related potential (ERP) elicited when we encounter semantic violations like ending a sentence with a semantically incongruent word (“The handsome prince married the beautiful fish”), or when the second word of a pair is unrelated to the first (BATTLE/GIRL).

naloxone

opiate antagonist that does not reverse analgesia due to the stress response.

nasion

depression at the bridge of the nose.

nefazodone (Serzone)

a dual-action antidepressant that activates 5-HT1 receptors to produce antidepressant and anxiolytic effects and blockades 5-HT2 (agitation, restlessness, and sexual dysfunction) and 5-HT3 (nausea, headache, and vomiting) receptors.

negative affective states

in Barrett and Russell’s structural model, unpleasant states like sadness are located in the left hemisphere.

negative affectivity

predisposition toward distress and dissatisfaction. Individuals who are rated high on this trait negatively perceive themselves, others, and the environment, and have a pessimistic perspective.

negative feedback

signal that a physiological variable is outside of a target range.

negative hallucination

hypnotic phenomenon where normal perception is suppressed, for example, perceiving an audience as naked following a hypnotic suggestion.

negative reinforcement

in operant conditioning, the strengthening of an operant behavior (effortless breathing) when it is followed by the avoidance or removal of an aversive stimulus (pain).

negative SCPs

slow cortical potentials produced by glial cells that increase the probability of neuron firing.

negative temperature coefficient

resistance to a DC current declines as temperature rises.

nerve growth factor (NGF)

protein that regulates neuron growth in spinal and sympathetic ganglia and probably plays a role in nociception.

neuroaxis

an imaginary line that runs centrally through the central nervous system (CNS) from the front of the prefrontal cortex to the base of the spinal cord.

neurocardiogenic syncope

fainting. In response to abnormal vagus nerve activity, blood vessels dilate, blood pools in the lower body, the brain receives less blood, and the client becomes light-headed and may faint.

neurofeedback

information about EEG activity that is obtained by noninvasive monitoring and used to help individuals achieve self-regulation through a learning process that resembles motor skill learning.

neuromodulator

neurochemical that modifies the effect of neurotransmitters through mechanisms like binding to metabotropic receptors.

neuron

excitable nervous system cell that processes and distributes information, chemically and electrically, and usually contains a soma (cell body), dendrites, and axon.

neuropeptides

chains of amino acids, like beta-endorphins, that are used by neurons to communicate and bind to metabotropic receptors.

neurosignature

in Melzack’s neuromatrix model, a signal that the body is intact and one’s own.

neutral stimulus (NS)

in classical conditioning, a stimulus (sight of a street light) that does not trigger a conditioned response (CR).

nicotine

stimulant that binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that can interfere with biofeedback treatment to lower blood pressure, since it raises heart rate and is a potent vasoconstrictor.

nicotinic ACh receptor

ionotropic receptor that is stimulated by nicotine and blocked by curare. They are mainly found in the PNS on skeletal muscles. At CNS axoaxonic synapses, they produce presynaptic facilitation (increase neurotransmitter release). In the CNS, nicotinic receptors help regulate cortical blood flow, anxiety reduction, and decision making.

nifedipine (generic)

drug that inhibits calcium ion influx into vascular smooth muscle. Nifedipine is used to pharmacologically control Raynaud’s disease.

nigrostriatal pathway

dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra to the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen) that controls movement. The nigrostriatal pathway is progressively destroyed in Parkinson’s disease.

nitric oxide (NO)

gaseous neurotransmitter that promotes vasodilation and long-term potentiation.

NMDA (glutamate) receptors

ligand-gated and voltage-gated glutamate receptors that bind the glutamate agonist NMDA. Their overactivity may mediate ischemic damage to oligodendrocytes. NMDA receptors play an important role in long-term potentiation (LTP).

NN50

the number of adjacent NN intervals that differ from each other by more than 50 milliseconds.

nociceptor

receptor that detects stimuli that damage tissue or threaten tissue injury.

node

vertex within a neural network.

nodes of Ranvier

gaps between myelinated axon segments where the axon membrane is exposed to extracellular fluid and action potentials are regenerated by sodium ion entry.

nondeclarative (procedural) memory

memories regarding perceptual (e.g., mirror reading) or motor procedures (e.g., mirror tracing) you acquire through action.

nonspecific immune mechanisms

anatomical barriers (skin and mucous membranes), phagocytosis (ingestion of microorganisms) by lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells), release of antimicrobial agents (hydrochloric acid, interferons, and lysozyme), and local inflammatory responses that confine microbes and allow white blood cells to attack them.

nonspecific skin conductance response (NS-SCR)

skin conductance response that occurs when identifiable stimuli are absent.

nonspecificity

diverse stressors produce consistent physiological change that Mason argued was due to their elicitation of common emotional states.

norepinephrine (neurons)

monoamine neurotransmitter that exerts postsynaptic effects at alpha and beta receptors, each of which has two subtypes. All norepinephrine receptors are G protein linked. The cell bodies of the most important noradrenergic system are located in the locus coeruleus, a nucleus found in the dorsal pons.

norepinephrine (skeletal muscles)

adrenal medulla hormone that increases muscle blood flow and converts stored nutrients into glucose for use by skeletal muscles.

norepinephrine hypothesis

the position that ADHD may involve subnormal norepinephrine transmission through the locus coeruleus branch of the ascending reticular activating system.

normal sinus rhythm

the sinoatrial node is the pacemaker and heart rate is between 60-100 beats per minute.

notch filter

a circuit that suppresses a narrow band of frequencies, such as contamination produced by line current (50/60Hz artifact).

nucleus

central mass of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.

nucleus accumbens

a limbic structure that is a target of dopamine released by the mesolimbic pathway. The nucleus accumbens plays a critical role in reinforcement of diverse activities, including ingestion of drugs like central nervous system stimulants.

nucleus ambiguus system

nucleus dorsal to the inferior olivary nucleus of the upper medulla that gives rise to vagus nerve motor fibers.

nucleus raphe magnus

serotonergic neurons that participate in the endogenous opiate system and inhibit pain in the spinal cord. These neurons excite spinal cord interneurons by releasing serotonin. The interneurons, in turn, inhibit C-fibers by releasing enkephalin, which binds to their terminal buttons and reduces their release of transmitter, a process called presynaptic inhibition.

nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis (NRPG)

neurons that excite spinal cord interneurons by releasing norepinephrine. These interneurons inhibit neurons that project to the thalamus through a polysynaptic pathway that does not release opioids.

Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem

perfect reconstruction of analog signal requires sampling at two times its highest frequency. A signal whose highest frequency is 1000 Hz should be sampled 2000 times per second.

O

designation for an occipital site in the International 10-10 and 10-20 systems.

occipital lobes

cortical lobes that are posterior to the parietal lobes. They process visual information coming from the eyes in collaboration with the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

octave

a 2:1 ratio between two frequencies. Filter slope is specified in dB per octave.

odd-ball stimulus

a meaningful stimulus that is different from others in a series used to elicit the P300 potential. For example, a colored playing card presented in a series of monochrome cards.

Ohm’s law

voltage (E) = current (I) X resistance (R). The “amount” of current (I) flowing through a conductor is equal to the voltage (E) or “push” divided by the resistance (R).

olecranon process

bony projection behind the elbow.

oligodendrocytes

glial cells that myelinate axons in the CNS.

ON-OFF-ON

training paradigm in which a client performs a target behavior (increases alpha amplitude), suppresses it (reduces alpha amplitude), and then produces it again (increases alpha amplitude).

open circuit

an incomplete path that prevents electrons movement from the power source, through the conductor and resistance, and back to the source. For example, a broken sensor cable.

Open Focus training

Fehmi’s attention training paradigm. For example, imagine the space between your eyes.

operant behavior

behavior that operates on the environment and is under voluntary control. For example, writing in a personal journal.

operant conditioning

unconscious associative learning process that modifies the form and occurrence of voluntary behavior by manipulating its consequences.

operant conditioning model

explanation that “biofeedback is the operant conditioning of physiological processes,” which downplays the importance of client awareness of physiological changes and instruction in training.

operant pain

pain that results from previous reinforcement of pain behaviors by the environment (secondary gain).

operational amplifier (op amp)

high-gain DC amplifier that uses external feedback to perform computations like addition, subtraction, and averaging on biological signals.

ophthalmoplegic migraine

vascular headache with nonpulsating, moderate pain (often with vomiting) and paralysis of one or more extraocular muscles that move the eyes. This disrupts alignment of eye movement and results in double vision.

optical isolation

device that converts a biological signal into a beam of light, the light crosses a gap (open circuit), and a photoreceptor reconverts the light into an electrical signal.

optimism

generalized expectancy of positive future outcomes. Optimists focus on a situation’s positive dimensions, minimizing daily hassles.

orbicularis oculus

facial muscle that closes the eyelids and wrinkles the forehead. The actives are located immediately below the center of each eye. Flaccid paralysis of this muscle occurs in Bell palsy and spasm produces blepharospasm.

orbitofrontal cortex

frontal lobe subdivision that is concerned with affective evaluation. It decodes the punishment and reward value of stimuli, and helps inhibit inappropriate behavior. Phineas Gage’s profound personality changes were produced by damage to this region.

organ-specific formulae

in autogenic training, autogenic modification procedures that modify standard exercise themes. For example, “My back is warm” instead of “My right arm is warm.”

orienting response

Pavlov’s “What is it?” reaction to stimuli like the sound of a vase crashing that includes (1) increased sensory sensitivity, (2) head (and ear) turning toward the stimulus, (3) increased muscle tone (reduced movement), (4) EEG desynchrony, (5) peripheral constriction and cephalic vasodilation, (6) a rise in skin conductance, (7) heart rate slowing, and (8) slower, deeper breathing.

orienting-arousal system

in Hugdahl’s model of EDA control, this system consists of the lateral frontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus, and reticular formation, and produces sweating to protect the skin from injury in situations demanding focused attention (e.g., novel stimuli) or vigilance for threats.

origin

a muscle’s attachment to the more stationary bone.

osteoarthritis

type of arthritis in which aging, irritation, and “wear-and-tear” progressively destroy cartilage in the synovial joints, especially those that bear weight.

osteoporosis

decreased bone density, is reduced by weight-bearing exercise that remodels the bones of the skeleton.

over-reactors

individuals who continuously produce SCRs as if they need excessive sympathetic arousal. They overreact to stimuli with high-amplitude responses and slowly return to baseline.

overbreathing

subtle breathing behaviors like sighs and yawns, and excessive breathing effort reduce end-tidal CO2 below 5%, exceeding the body’s need to eliminate CO2.

oxytocin

hormone and neurotransmitter that may contribute to social bonding, anxiety following exposure to stressors, and the milk letdown reflex.

P

designation for a parietal site in the International 10-10 and 10-20 systems.

P wave

ECG structure produced as contractile fibers in the atria depolarize and culminates in contraction of the atria (atrial systole).

P300 potential

an event-related potential (ERP) with a 300-900 ms latency and greatest positive peaks located over parietal lobe sites. The P300 potential may reflect an event’s subjective probability, meaning, and transmission of information.

palliation

in Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional Model of Stress, secondary appraisal can lead to efforts to reduce our stress response rather than attack the stressor.

pallor

in Raynaud’s, white skin color is produced by constriction of arterioles and venules.

palmar surface

the ventral or volar aspect of the hand.

palmoplantar hyperhidrosis

excessive sweating from the hands and feet.

palpation

examination by feeling or pressing with the hand.

paralysis

loss or impairment of muscle function due to a muscular or nervous system lesion that may also involve sensory deficits.

paraspinal muscle placement

the erector spinae maintains the erect position of the spine and extends the vertebral column. Active pairs are located lateral to the spine, above the iliac crest (rounded upper margins of the ilium bone above the buttocks) about L4 and below the bottom of the ribs at about L2.

parasympathetic division

autonomic nervous system subdivision that regulates activities that increase the body’s energy reserves, including salivation, gastric (stomach) and intestinal motility, gastric juice secretion, and increased blood flow to the gastrointestinal system.

parasympathetic dominance

Wenger’s concept of greater parasympathetic activation than sympathetic activation.

parasympathetic responder

a response stereotypy in which an individual may increase digestive activity, constrict the alveoli of the lungs, and faint from low blood pressure when challenged by stressors.

parasympathetic vagus (X) nerves

cranial nerves that arise from the medulla’s cardiovascular center, decrease the rate of spontaneous depolarization in SA and AV nodes, and slow the heart rate from the SA nodes intrinsic rate of 100 beats per minute.

paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus

when activated by the central nucleus of the amygdala, this nucleus releases CRH to the pituitary gland.

paresis

muscle weakness or partial paralysis.

parietal lobes

cortical lobes posterior to the frontal lobes that are divided into the primary somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus) and secondary somatosensory cortex. Their main function is to process somatosensory information like pain and touch. The right posterior parietal lobe helps guide movements, locate objects in three-dimensional space, and create body boundaries.

paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

form of supraventricular arrhythmia in which an episode of tachycardia starts and ends suddenly. This is most commonly diagnosed in young patients, and may be triggered during strenuous exercise.

passband

the frequencies transmitted by a bandpass filter, for example, 100-200 Hz.

passive attitude

in autogenic training, an attitude of allowing is the most crucial element of the six standard exercises.

passive concentration

in autogenic training, the absence of effort and goal-direction.

passive infrared hemoencephalography (HEG)

detection of infrared light that theoretically corresponds to heat generated by local brain metabolism and blood oxygenation.

passive tension

the elasticity of connective tissue allows muscle fibers to produce, sum, and transmit force.

passive volition

a process where you invite yourself to perform an action like dropping your arm in your lap that is triggered by words like allow or permit.

patella

kneecap.

peak frequency

highest amplitude frequency in a signal.

peak voltage

0.5 of the peak-to-peak voltage.

peak-to-peak voltage

the energy contained between the positive and negative peaks of the original AC waveform, which is 2 times peak voltage.

pectoralis major

synergist that along with the deltoid anchors both the arm and shoulder when the biceps brachii (agonist) contracts to flex the forearm.

Peniston-Kulkosky addiction protocol

multimodal approach that incorporates visualization training, temperature biofeedback, rhythmic breathing techniques, autogenic training exercises, construction of personalized imagery, guided imagery, and 30 alpha-theta sessions.

perceived control

an individual’s expectancy that she can influence her outcomes. This concept overlaps with the concepts of locus of control, mastery, and self-efficacy.

Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)

Cohen and colleagues’ scale that measures perceived hassles, major life changes, and shifts in coping resources during the previous month using a 14-item scale. PSS items assess the degree to which respondents rate their lives as unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded.

perceived support

expected social support.

percutaneous electrode

electrode inserted through the skin. For example, an EMG electrode used to evaluate the viability of motor units in a stroke patient.

performance-based protocols

use of tasks and neurofeedback training to correct symptoms and improve performance. This approach compares clients to themselves and not a clinical database.

periaqueductal gray (PAG)

midbrain region whose axons form excitatory synapses on neurons located in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis (NRPG) in the medulla. The PAG plays a role in the descending modulation of pain and control of defensive behavior, and its ability to suppress pain may be compromised by successive migraines.

perineometer

device developed by Kegel to treat urinary incontinence, which is inserted into the vagina to monitor pelvic floor muscle contraction.

peripheral nerve

nerves of the autonomic, enteric, or somatic nervous system, including the lower motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscles.

peripheral nervous system

nervous system subdivision that includes autonomic and somatic branches.

person effect

Taub and School’s (1978) observation that biofeedback training is a social situation and that a client’s relationship with the therapist may be the most critical aspect of training.

pessimism

generalized expectancy of negative future outcomes, which is a heart attack risk factor.

petit mal seizures

type of epilepsy characterized by the loss of consciousness without abnormal movement during which a client appears to be daydreaming. A child may suffer hundreds of these seizures daily for periods lasting up to 30 seconds.

pH

the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution, which is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions.

phagocytosis

ingestion of microorganisms by immune cells like lymphocytes and macrophages.

phantom limb pain

chronic pain syndrome in which a patient perceives that an amputated or missing limb is still intact.

phase

the degree to which the peaks and valleys of two waveforms coincide.

phase angle

the phase delay measured in degrees between two simultaneously recorded EEG signals from separate scalp locations for each frequency band.

phase distortion

displacement of the EEG waveform in time due to filter processing.

phase synchrony

synchrony when identical EEG frequencies are detected at two or more electrode sites and the peaks and valleys of the EEG waveforms coincide. This is also called global synchrony. For example, EEG training may aim at producing phase-synchronous 12-Hz alpha waves at O1-A1 and O2-A2.

phase-synchronous signals

signals whose peaks and valleys coincide.

phasic

brief change in physiological activity in response to a discrete stimulus. For example, a single skin potential response in reaction to a sudden tone.

phonautograph

device developed by Leon Scott and studied by Alexander Graham Bell to teach the deaf to speak that translated sound vibrations into tracings on smoked glass to show their acoustic waveforms.

photoelectric transducer

phototransistor that detects infrared light transmitted by a PPG sensor and converts it into a positive DC signal.

photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor

photoelectric transducer that transmits and detects infrared light that passes through, or is reflected off, tissue to measure brief changes in blood volume and detect the pulse wave. A PPG sensor measures relative peripheral blood flow, and heart rate and HRV

physiological monitoring

detection of biological activity like blood pressure.

pituitary gland

endocrine gland found at the base of the skull that is divided into the anterior pituitary, which secretes the tropic hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and growth hormone (GH), and the posterior pituitary that releases oxytocin or vasopressin produced by the hypothalamus.

placebo

physiologically-inactive interventions (e.g., sugar pills) that appear to be active treatments and produce improvement through expectancy, and classical and operant conditioning.

placebo model

explanation that “biofeedback produces nonspecific effects, like a drug, due to client beliefs.”

plantar flexors

muscles that point the toes downward (inferiorly) through extension at the ankle joint. For example, the tibialis posterior plantar flexes and inverts the foot.

plantar surface

the dorsal aspect of the hand.

plasma cells

activated B lymphocytes that secrete antibodies called immunoglobulins.

plateau

in temperature biofeedback, lack of change in skin temperature.

pneumograph (RESP)

instrument that measures the movement of the abdomen and/or chest, and provides information about breathing mechanics and respiration rate.

pNN50

the percentage of adjacent NN intervals that differ from each other by more than 50 milliseconds.

polarity artifact

ECG artifact when reversed electrode placement inverts the direction of the R-spike and causes software to miss beats and lengthen the IBI.

polarization

chemical reactions produce separate regions of positive and negative charge where an electrode and electrolyte make contact, reducing ion exchange.

polymodal nociceptor

nociceptor that responds to several stimuli.

polyphasic (multiphasic) wave

wave that contains two or more deflections of opposite polarity from baseline.

polyvagal theory

theory that the unmyelinated vagus (dorsal vagus complex) and newer myelinated vagus (ventral vagal complex) mediate competing adaptive responses.

pons

brainstem structure above the medulla that contains breathing centers that adjust VRG breathing rhythms based on descending input from brain structures and peripheral sensory input.

poral valve model

Edelberg’s revised model of a skin conductance response (SCR) in which rising levels of sweat in the duct open a poral valve, depositing sweat on the skin surface (skin conductance peaks), and then the loss of this sweat reduces the intraductal pressure need to keep the poral valve open (conductance rapidly declines).

positional feedback

display of information about the position of the body or a body part like the head in three-dimensional space to correct balance and posture, for example, a feedback helmet.

positive feedback (feedforward)

in cybernetic theory, commands to continue current action (slow breathing). Positive feedback can amplify the effects of negative feedback (tone when breathing is too rapid).

positive reinforcement

in operant conditioning, the strengthening of an operant behavior (aerobic exercise) when it is followed by a reward (praise).

positive SCPs

slow cortical potentials that are produced by glial cells that decrease the probability of neuron firing.

positive states

in Barrett and Russell’s structural model, pleasant states like contentment are located in the right hemisphere.

posterior

near or toward the back of the head.

posterior commissure

axon tracts located below the corpus callosum that connect the right and left diencephalon and mesencephalon.

posterior deltoid

muscle that abducts, flexes, extends, and rotates the arm. The actives are located behind the angle of the acromion (posterior to the bony triangle at the top of the shoulder).

posterior styloid process

rear aspect the projection from the medial and back part of the ulna (elbow bone).

postmeniscectomy patient

individual who has had torn knee fibrocartilage removed.

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

severe and long-lasting trauma and stressor-related disorder that often develops within three months of a traumatic event and may include reexperiencing a traumatic event, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, numbing of responsiveness, and hyperarousal.

power (W)

the rate at which energy is transferred, which is proportional to product of current and voltage. Power is measured in watts.

power spectral analysis

measurement of signal amplitude across its frequency range using a Fourier Transform algorithm.

power strokes

after actin and myosin filaments form cross bridges, myosin moves actin inward, breaks contact, binds to actin, and then repeats this process.

prazosin (Minipress)

antagonist at alpha1-adrenergic receptors that is used to pharmacologically control Raynaud’s disease.

preamplifier

the first amplification stage that prepares an electronic signal for additional processing. A preamplifier can be built into the housing of an EEG or SEMG electrode to reduce signal loss.

preauricular point

slight depression located in front of the ear and above the earlobe.

precapillary sphincter

in capillaries, a valve at the arterial end of a capillary that controls blood flow to the tissues.

preeclampsia

pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), which is characterized by the development of hypertension, proteinuria, and edema late in pregnancy.

prefrontal cortex

most anterior region of the frontal lobes that is divided into orbitofrontal and ventromedial, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior and ventral cingulate cortex subdivisions, and is responsible for the brain’s executive functions like attention and planning.

prehypertension

systolic blood pressure from 130-139 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure from 80-89 mmHg.

premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)

abnormal heart rhythm in which depolarization starts in the ventricle instead of the sinus node resulting in early ventricular contraction.

premotor cortex

frontal lobe subdivision that is anterior to the motor cortex and helps program head, trunk, and limb movements.

presynaptic facilitation

modulatory process in which a neuron increases the presynaptic neuron’s neurotransmitter release by delivering a neurotransmitter that increases calcium ion entry into its terminal button.

presynaptic inhibition

modulatory process in which a neuron decreases neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion entry.

primary appraisal

in Lazarus and Folkman’s Transaction Model of Stress, the first stage of our response to an event during which we categorize the consequences of events as positive, neutral, or negative and determine whether an event is relevant and negative or potentially negative. We evaluate these events for their possible harm, threat, or challenge.

primary (essential) hypertension

chronically elevated blood pressure not due to an identifiable cause.

primary hyperalgesia

supersensitivity to stimulation that affects joints, muscles, or skin that have suffered damage or inflammation.

primary somatosensory cortex (S1)

subdivision of the parietal lobe located at the postcentral gyrus that processes information about touch and pain.

priming

subtype of nondeclarative memory in which your response to a stimulus, like a word, changes following exposure to an identical or related stimulus.

problem solving training (PST)

D’Zurilla’s training to improve clients’ ability to cope with everyday problems. This intervention reduces stress and anxiety, helps patients control anger, and can help lower blood pressure.

problem-focused coping strategies

plans to resolve problems that are encouraged by optimism.

Progressive Relaxation

Jacobson’s deep relaxation procedure that originally trained patients to relax 2 or 3 muscle groups each session until 50 groups were trained during 50-60 sessions in the clinic and 1-2 daily one-hour practice sessions.

pronators

muscles that turn the palm downward (posteriorly). For example, pronator teres exposes the posterior side of the forearm.

proprioception

perception of body position, movement, and muscle length.

proprioceptive feedback

information about body position and movement.

prostaglandin

lipid hormone that promotes swelling.

prostatectomy

removal of the prostate.

protective guarding

SEMG elevation on the side opposite an injury.

protein kinase A

an intracellular enzyme that controls the excitability of ion channels and is an important enzyme target of cyclic AMP.

protein kinase C (PKC)

enzyme activated by uncontrollable stressful situations that interferes with prefrontal cortical functions and may result in symptoms of distractibility, impulsiveness, and poor judgment seen in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

proton

positively-charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom.

provider

the professional who supervises biofeedback training.

proximal

toward where a limb attaches to the trunk. In neuromuscular rehabilitation, the site where training starts.

psychoneuroimmunology

Solomon and Moos’ term for a multidisciplinary field that studies the interactions between behavior and the nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system.

psychophysiological principle

Green, Green, and Walter’s concept that there is a bidirectional relationship between physiological and psychological functioning. For example, facial muscle contraction can influence emotion and emotion can influence facial muscle contraction.

pulmonary impedance

resistance of the bronchioles of the lungs to air flow, which is increased in asthma.

pulse oximeter

device that measures dissolved oxygen in the bloodstream using a photoplethysmograph sensor placed against a finger or earlobe.

pulse wave velocity

rate of pulse wave movement through the arteries that is measured by placing pressure transducers (motion sensors) at two points along the arterial system (like the brachial and radial arteries of the same arm).

punisher

a consequence that weakens an operant behavior. For example, shoulder pain (punisher) following excessive exercise (operant behavior) may result in reduced exercise intensity.

punishment

in operant conditioning, the consequence of an operant behavior reduces its probability.

push-pull control

regulation by effectors that produce antagonistic effects and achieves more precise control than turning a single effector on or off. For example, parasympathetic and sympathetic motor neurons jointly adjust the heart rhythm.

pyramidal motor system

corticospinal motor pathway responsible for discrete control of fingers, hands, arms, trunk, and upper legs. The axons of upper motor neurons descend from the primary motor cortex to the medulla to directly or indirectly synapse with lower motor neurons in the ventral gray matter of the spinal cord.

QRS complex

ECG structure that corresponds to the depolarization of the ventricles.

quadriceps femoris

great leg extensor composite muscle that consists of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius. This muscle, along with the tibialis anterior, dorsiflexes (bends the foot upwards) during the forward swing phase of walking and is up-trained following meniscectomy and total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

quadriplegia (tetraplegia)

paralysis of all four limbs and the trunk. Quadriplegia is found in the spastic subtype of cerebral palsy.

Quantitative EEG (QEEG)

digitized statistical brain mapping using at least a 19-channel montage to measure EEG amplitude within specific frequency bins.

Quantitative Surface Electromyography (QSEMG)

monitoring SEMG activity from multiple muscle sites to teach patients new muscle recruitment patterns to achieve functional movements.

Quieting Response (QR)

Stroebel’s (1982) 6-second exercise which instructs a client to focus on a stress cue, smile inwardly, take an easy deep breath, and let the jaw, tongue, and shoulders go limp as she exhales.

R-spike

initial upward deflection in the QRS complex of the ECG.

R-wave-to-pulse interval (RPI) biofeedback

display of the elapsed between the R-wave of the ECG and the maximum amplitude of the peripheral pulse wave during a single cardiac cycle to a client to reduce blood pressure.

radio frequency artifact

frequencies from 3 Hz to 300 GHz that contaminate EEG and SEMG recordings. Cell phone transmissions and computer monitors can produce spuriously raise SEMG amplitudes.

random dot stereogram

hidden three-dimensional image created by repeating patterns within one image that can be perceived by allowing your eyes to defocus until you are seeing double.

range

the difference between the lowest and highest values.

raphe system

network of serotonergic neurons located in the midbrain, pons, and medulla that give rise to most of the brain’s serotonergic neurons. This network includes anxiety-producing and anxiety-reducing pathways that terminate on the hippocampus.

rate law

principle that neurons represent the intensity of a stimulus by variation in the rate of axon firing.

Raynaud’s disease

the primary form of Raynaud’s, a syndrome involving painful vasospasms in peripheral vessels in response to exposure to cold and cold-related stimuli. Raynaud’s disease is not due to an identifiable disorder.

Raynaud’s phenomenon

the secondary form of Raynaud’s, a syndrome involving painful vasospasms in peripheral vessels in response to exposure to cold and cold-related stimuli, due to observable processes like trauma (carpal tunnel syndrome and shoulder girdle compression syndrome), arterial disorders (atherosclerosis), and rheumatic disorders (lupus erythematosis).

Raynaud’s patients

medical patients diagnosed with Raynaud’s disease or Raynaud’s phenomenon, who may exhibit abnormal anastomoses dilation in response to mild cold-related stimuli.

reactive hyperemia

excessive inflow of oxygenated blood into the upper epidermis during the rubor stage of Raynaud’s.

readiness potential

slow-rising, negative potential (10-15 microvolts) detected at the vertex before voluntary and spontaneous movement. This slow cortical potential precedes voluntary movement by 0.5 to 1 second and peaks when the subject responds.

reappraisal

in Lazarus and Folkman’s Transaction Model of Stress, secondary appraisal can result in modification of our perception of a threat when direct action is impractical or unsuccessful.

received support

support actually provided.

rectifier

electronic device that changes an AC signal into a positive DC signal.

rectus abdominis

muscle of forceful expiration that depresses the inferior ribs and compresses the abdominal viscera to push the diaphragm upward.

rectus femoris

component of the quadriceps femoris located on the anterior thigh that extends the leg at the knee joint and flexes the thigh at the hip joint.

reference electrode

electrode that is placed over a less electrically active site like the mastoid process behind the ear or the spine. The ground (black) ECG electrode may be placed on the left upper chest, below the palmar aspect of the left elbow, or above the palmar aspect of the left wrist.

referential montage

combination of derivations that uses earlobe or mastoid process references.

referred pain

pain perceived at a distance from the site of injury. For example, angina pectoris.

refractory period

5-msec interval during which skeletal muscles lose their excitability to prevent exhaustion.

reframing

reappraisal strategy in which they place the stressful situation in perspective and focus on available opportunities.

regular or monomorphic waves

successive waves with identical shapes. Regular waves may resemble sine waves (sinusoidal) or may be arched (resembling wickets) or saw-toothed (asymmetrical and triangular).

regulatory capacity

the ability to adaptively respond to challenges like exercise and stressors.

reinforcement

in operant conditioning, the consequence of an operant behavior increases its probability.

reinforcer

a consequence that strengthens an operant behavior. For example, weight loss (reinforcer) following daily walks (operant) may increase the probability of walking.

relational learning

conscious learning process that associates stimuli that occur at the same time and underlies working memory and declarative memory (learning how to warm your hands using a biofeedback display).

relative power

the percentage of absolute power of a frequency with respect to the absolute power of other frequencies measured at a specific electrode.

relaxation model

explanation that biofeedback is inherently relaxing, which could lead therapists to administer biofeedback without relaxation instructions.

relaxation phase

segment of an SEMG tracking test where the patient is instructed to relax a monitored muscle.

Relaxation state (R-state)

positive psychological state experienced during relaxation.

relaxation training

procedures that reduce arousal and can produce complex changes in the individual, including blood pressure reduction. Six families of relaxation training include stretching, progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, autogenic training, imagery/positive self-talk, and mediation/mindfulness.

relaxation-induced anxiety

increased anxiety during relaxation training that may include increased perspiration, shivering, trembling, pounding heart, and rapid breathing.

repetitive stress injury (RSI)

syndrome that includes diffuse pain in the arm that worsens with activity and weakness and lack of endurance. These symptoms do not follow nerve and tendon distributions.

replication

reproduction of experimental findings.

resistance

second stage of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome where local defenses have made the generalized stress response unnecessary. Both cortisol output and stress symptoms, like adrenal gland enlargement, decline.

resistance (EDA)

the reciprocal of conductance, also called galvanic skin response (GSR), that reflects opposition to external current movement and is measured as skin resistance level (SRL) and skin resistance response (SRR) in Kohms (thousands of ohms).

resistance (R)

opposition to a DC signal by a resistor measured in ohms.

resistor

electrical or electronic component that opposes electrical current flow. Edelberg described the long, tubular sweat ducts as resistors wired in parallel.

resolution

degree of detail in a biofeedback display (0.1 uV) or the number of voltage levels that an A/D converter can discriminate (16 bits or discrimination among 65,536 voltage levels).

resonance frequency

frequency at which a system, like the cardiovascular system, can be activated or stimulated; breathing rate that maximizes the most time domain measurements of heart rate variability.

respiration sensor (respirometer)

sensor that changes resistance to a current as it expands and contracts during the respiratory cycle.

respiratory amplitude

the excursion of an abdominal strain gauge.

respiratory biofeedback

display of respiration sensor expansion and contraction back to the monitored individual.

respiratory cycle

consists of an inspiratory phase, inspiratory pause, expiratory phase, and expiratory pause.

respiratory membrane

site of respiratory gas exchange that is comprised by alveolar and capillary walls.

respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)

respiration-driven heart rhythm that contributes to the high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability. Inhalation inhibits vagal nerve slowing of the heart (increasing heart rate), while exhalation restores vagal slowing (decreasing heart rate).

respondent pain

pain due to an identifiable stimulus, like a dental drill. This pain does not require previous learning.

response

phasic measure of electrodermal activity that represents a spontaneous or stimulus-elicited change in sweat gland activity.

response cost (negative punishment)

the weakening of an operant behavior (pain complaints) when it is followed by the removal of a rewarding consequence (attention from a spouse).

response coupling

responses change together (heart rate up, blood pressure up).

response fractionation

responses change independently (heart rate down, blood pressure up).

response stereotypy

consistent pattern of physiological responses when an individual encounters stimuli that share the same intensity and elicit similar emotions. For example, a patient may raise her heart rate and blood pressure when delivering a report during a business meeting or completing an assignment under time pressure.

resting potential

membrane potential of a neuron when it is not influenced by messages from other neurons.

reticular formation

network of 90 nuclei within the central brainstem from the lower medulla to the upper midbrain. The reticular formation sends axons to the spinal cord, thalamus, and cortex where it contributes to diverse functions like neurological reflexes, muscle tone and movement, and attention, arousal, and sleep.

retrahens muscle

muscle studied by Bair that wiggles the ear.

reuptake

the primary method that neurons terminate the action of neurotransmitters. Reuptake transporters located in terminal buttons and astrocytes remove neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft.

reverse breathing

the abdomen expands during exhalation and contracts during inhalation, often resulting in incomplete ventilation of the lungs.

reward deficiency syndrome

Blum’s hypothesis that an abnormal form of the A1 allele is present in most severe alcoholics and results in defective D2 receptors. Reduced D2 receptor activity may reduce the activation of the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus and result in dysphoria, drug craving, and compulsive drug-seeking and abuse.

rheumatoid arthritis

type of arthritis in which the immune system bilaterally attacks cartilage and joint linings, resulting in a thickened synovial membrane and swollen joint.

right atrium

upper chamber of the heart that receives deoxygenated blood and pumps it into the right ventricle.

right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

division of the prefrontal cortex that organizes withdrawal-related behavior and negative affect, and mediates threat-related vigilance. It plays a role in working memory for object location.

right ventricle

lower chamber of the heart that receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery.

RMSSD

the square root of the mean squared difference of adjacent NN intervals.

root mean square (RMS) voltage

0.707 of the peak voltage.

rostral

toward the front of the head.

rotators

muscles that move a bone around a longitudinal axis. For example, the obturator externus laterally rotates the thigh.

rubor

in Raynaud’s, red skin color and burning sensations result from excessive inflow of oxygenated blood into the upper epidermis.

S-T segment

ECG structure that connects the QRS complex and the T wave. Ventricular contraction continues through the S-T segment.

sagittal line

in the International 10-10 system, a longitudinal line that is designated by numerical subscripts.

saltatory conduction

action potential conduction in myelinated axons in which action potentials jump from node to node for 200 times greater speed.

sampling rate

the number of times per second that the voltage is measured.

sarcomeres

skeletal muscle compartments that are separated by dense zones called Z discs.

scale

range of displayed values, for example, an SEMG scale of 0-5 microvolts.

scapula

shoulder blade.

scapular winging

protrusion of the shoulder blade following shoulder injury.

SDANN

the standard deviation of the average 5-minute NN intervals that estimates heart rate changes produced by cycles longer than 5 minutes.

SDNN

the standard deviation of the interbeat interval measured in milliseconds, which predicts both morbidity and mortality.

SDNN index

the average of 5-minute standard deviations of NN intervals across a 24-hour period that measures the contribution of rhythms briefer than 5 minutes to heart rate variability.

SDRR

the standard deviation of the interbeat interval for all sinus beats measured in milliseconds, which predicts both morbidity and mortality.

second pain signal

sensation of dull, aching pain carried by C-fibers that reminds the body to protect itself against further injury.

secondary appraisal

in Lazarus and Folkman’s Transaction Model of Stress, the second stage of our response to an event during which we evaluate whether our coping abilities and resources can surmount an event’s harm, threat, or challenge.

secondary gains

the rewards of symptomatic behavior, like reduced housecleaning responsibilities following the display of pain behaviors.

secondary hyperalgesia

supersensitivity to stimulation that affects tissue surrounding joints, muscles, or skin that have suffered damage or inflammation.

secondary hypertension

elevated blood pressure that has an identifiable cause, such as obstruction of renal (kidney) blood flow or disorders that injure renal tissue, hypersecretion of aldosterone, and hypersecretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine by an adrenal medulla tumor called a pheochromocytoma.

secondary somatosensory cortex (S2)

region of the parietal lobe that receives somatosensory information from the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and maps both sides of the body.

secretory portion

the coils of an eccrine sweat gland that produce sweat.

self-control

using a skill to achieve a desired state, like running on a treadmill to reduce weight.

self-efficacy

an individual’s expectancy that she can influence her outcomes. This concept overlaps with the concepts of locus of control, mastery, and perceived control.

self-hypnosis

self-suggestion.

self-maintenance

ensuring long-term skill practice, like periodically reviewing your success with effortless breathing and fine-tuning this skill.

self-monitoring

observing yourself in a situation, like taking your pulse after a run.

self-quantification

process that tracks data about our inputs (sleep), states (mood), and performance (heart rate variability) to improve lifestyle choices.

self-regulation

control of your behavior (voluntary hand-warming).

self-reinforcement

using internal or external rewards to increase performance of a behavior. For example, praising yourself for using effortless breathing during an argument.

semantic memory

subtype of declarative memory that is generalized and consists of facts.

SEMG

surface electromyogram.

SEMG power

the energy of the surface electromyogram measured in microvolts.

SEMG scanning

bipolar recording technique that involves the sequential monitoring of a series of muscle sites using two active post electrodes and a common reference.

semispinalis capitis

muscle that helps extend the head and rotates the head to the side opposite to the contracting muscle.

senile posture

Hannah’s term for a postural pattern where the muscles at your center of gravity pull the pelvis and hips up toward the trunk, and simultaneously pull the trunk and shoulder girdle down toward the pelvis. This posture can produce chronic shallow breathing and hyperventilation by immobilizing the chest.

sensitivity

the ability of a biofeedback device to detect weak signals that depends on its signal-to-noise ratio. The ability of an electromyograph to discriminate a 0.1 uV voltage from environmental and instrument noise.

sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)

EEG rhythm that ranges from 13-15 Hz and is located over the sensorimotor cortex (central sulcus). The waves are synchronous. The sensorimotor rhythm appears when you inhibit movement and relax your muscles. The SMR is generated by thalamic ventrobasal relay cells and thalamo-cortical feedback loops.

sensorimotor system

in Sterman’s model, ascending pathways that convey information about touch and proprioception to the thalamus, the thalamus and its thalamic projections to the sensorimotor cortex, and the sensorimotor cortex, and its efferent fibers.

sensory ERPs

event-related potentials that are evoked by external sensory stimuli (auditory, olfactory, somatosensory, and visual). These evoked potentials or exogenous ERPs have a negative peak 80-90 ms and positive peak about 170 ms following stimulus onset.

sensory neurons

neurons specialized for sensory intake. They are called afferent because they transmit sensory information towards the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

sensory systems

networks that detect actual or anticipated changes in system variables.

sensory-discriminative component

the subjective feeling of pain (dull aching or sharp) is processed in the secondary somatosensory cortex.

septal nuclei

in Sieb’s model, when the prefrontal cortex receives information about high-priority environmental events, it signals cell bodies in the septum to induce a beta rhythm in the hippocampus to remove its inhibition of vigilance centers.

septohippocampal system

a subcortical circuit from the septum to hippocampus that contributes to 4-7 Hz theta activity.

septum

limbic structure that contains several nuclei involved in emotion and addiction, and control of aggressive behavior.

serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

drugs that produce antidepressant effects by interfering with serotonin reuptake.

setpoint

system goal, for example, a thermostat setting of 75 degrees F (23.9 degrees C).

shaping

operant procedure where a clinician rewards successive approximations of a final behavior. Praise and auditory and visual feedback for progressively lower trapezius SEMG levels.

sharp transients

sequence that contain several sharp waves.

sharp waves

waves that resemble spikes with a pointed peak with a longer 70-200 ms duration.

Sherman’s five percent rule

severe acute pain can develop and progress to chronic pain when limbs deviate five degrees from a healthy position, muscles are five percent more tense than required, and muscles remain minimally tense five percent longer than required.

shock phase

first part of Selye’s alarm stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome that includes the reduced body stress resistance and increased autonomic arousal and hormone release (ACTH, cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) that comprise the “fight-or-flight” response.

signal strength

the energy contained within the EEG signal that is represented by amplitude (uV) or power (picowatts).

signal-to-noise ratio

ratio between signal and artifact voltages that determines a biofeedback instrument’s sensitivity.

silver-silver chloride electrode

an electrode that is fabricated from a combination of silver and silver-chloride to reduce electrode noise.

single-ended amplifier

electronic amplifier that amplifies an input voltage.

single-unit smooth muscle

smooth muscle that comprises part of the walls of small arteries and veins, the stomach, intestines, uterus, and urinary bladder.

sink

site where current enters the neuron. Positive sodium ion entry into a neuron creates an active sink, represented by -ve.

sinoatrial (SA) node

sinoatrial node of the heart that initiates each cardiac cycle through spontaneous depolarization of its autorhythmic fibers.

sinus tachycardia

type of supraventricular arrhythmia in which a heart rate of 100-150 beats per minute is generated by stimulation of the SA node. The effects of this arrhythmia include decreased filling times, decreased mean arterial pressure, and increased myocardial demand.

situational specificitythe occurrence of a physiological response in specific situations. For example, blood pressure increase during a dental examination.

six relaxation themes

in autogenic training, the themes include heaviness, warmth, cardiac regulation, respiration, abdominal warmth, and forehead cooling.

six standard exercises

in autogenic training, exercises that focus on the physiological changes of the six relaxation themes. While the heaviness and warmth exercises are each divided into seven parts, the remaining four exercises focus on only one body region (heart, lungs, abdomen, and forehead).

skeletal muscles

extrafusal muscles that move the bones of the skeleton and are striated (striped) muscles due to alternating light (I) and dark (A) bands.

skill learning

subtype of nondeclarative memory in which you master a task which depends on neuromuscular coordination.

skin condition

skin moisture and the presence or absence of abrasions, cuts, or calluses, which can each influence electrodermal measurements.

skin conductance

exosomatic measure of EDA that indexes how easily an external current passes through the skin that is measured as skin conductance level (SCL) and skin conductance response (SCR) in microsiemens (formerly micromhos).

skin conductance level (SCL)

a tonic measure of how easily an AC or DC current passes through the skin, expressed in microsiemens.

skin conductance response (SCR)

phasic measure of skin conductance that is measured in microsiemens.

skin potential

endosomatic measure of EDA that detects voltage differences between two electrodes on the skin surface. Skin potential is measured as skin potential level (SPL) and skin potential response (SPR), and is measured in millivolts (thousandths of a volt).

skin potential level (SPL)

tonic measure of skin potential that is measured in millivolts.

skin potential response (SPR)

phasic measure of skin potential that is measured in millivolts.

skin resistance

exosomatic measure of EDA that reflects opposition to current movement and is measured as skin resistance level (SRL) and skin resistance response (SRR), also called galvanic skin response (GSR), in Kohms (thousands of ohms).

skin resistance level (SRL)

a tonic (resting) measurement of the opposition to an AC or DC current as it passes through the skin, expressed in Kohms.

skin resistance response (SRR)

phasic measure of skin resistance that is measured in Kohms.

sleep reactivity

the tendency for sleep to be disrupted by stress.

slew artifact

the movement of voltages to one side when there are imbalanced impedances between physically-linked ears. This is not a problem when the individual ear leads are combined as a “virtual” linked-ears reference in the software.

slope

the rate by which voltage is reduced as frequency changes that is expressed as a ratio of decibels per octave, for example, a 20 dB/octave slope.

slow cortical potential (SCP) training

neurofeedback to increase the gradual negative changes in the membrane potentials of cortical dendrites that last from 300 ms to several seconds to reduce neuronal excitability in conditions like grand mal epilepsy and migraine.

slow cortical potentials (SCPs)

gradual changes in the membrane potentials of cortical dendrites that range from 0.01-2 Hz. These potentials include the contingent negative variation (CNV), readiness potential, movement-related potentials (MRPs), and P300 and N400 potentials. SCPs modulate the firing rate of cortical pyramidal neurons by exciting or inhibiting their apical dendrites. They group the classical EEG rhythms using these synchronizing mechanisms.

slow oxidative (SO) fibers

red fibers that are rich in myoglobin, mitochondria, and capillaries with a high capacity to produce ATP through oxidative metabolism. Since SO fibers split ATP at a slow rate, contraction velocity is slow and these fibers are highly resistant to fatigue. Postural muscles contain a high proportion of SO fibers. They are also called slow twitch fibers.

slow transit constipation

slow movement of feces through the colon.

smooth muscle

single-unit and multi-unit muscle fibers whose contraction starts more gradually and persists longer than skeletal muscle contraction. Smooth muscles can shorten and stretch more than other kinds of muscles and usually operate involuntarily. Some tissues have an intrinsic rhythm (autorhythmicity).

SMR training

procedure that up-trains SMR activity while possibly down-training theta, beta, and epileptiform activity.

social contacts

the nodes (individuals or organizations) comprising a person’s social network.

social learning (observational learning)

learning process in which observation of the consequences of a model’s behavior can influence an individual’s operant behavior. For example, exposure to a therapist’s slow breathing increases a client’s practice of effortless breathing.

social network

social structure that consists of nodes (individuals or organizations) that are tied together.

Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)

Holmes and Rahe measured major positive and negative life changes using their Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) which lists 43 events, each assigned a different Life Change Unit (LCU) value.

social support

received (support actually provided) and perceived support (expected support) from individuals and organizations.

sodium (Na+) ions

positive ions that enter a neuron during EPSPs and action potentials.

sodium-potassium transporter (neuron)

mechanism powered by ATP that exchanges 3 sodium ions for 2 potassium ions to restore the neuron membrane potential to a resting negative voltage so that it can be depolarized, again, allowing it to produce new graded potentials and contribute to action potentials.

sodium-potassium transporter (skeletal muscle)

mechanism powered by ATP that exchanges 3 sodium ions for 2 potassium ions to restore the muscle fiber to a resting negative voltage so that it can be depolarized, again, allowing new contraction.

soma or cell body

part of a neuron that contains machinery for cell life processes and receives and integrates EPSPs and IPSPs from axons, which are generated by axosomatic synapses (junctions between axons and somas). The cell body of a typical neuron is 20 um in diameter, and its spherical nucleus, which contains chromosomes comprised of DNA, is 5-10 um across.

somatic nervous system

peripheral nervous system subdivision that receives external sensory and somatosensory information and controls skeletal muscle contraction.

somatosensation

perception of pain, touch, and temperature.

source

the place at the end of the neuron opposite of the sink where current leaves that is represented by +ve. The extracellular area surrounding the source becomes electrically positive.

spaced practice

scheduling training sessions over an extended period of time like 15 sessions over 8 weeks.

spasmodic dysphonia

the inability to speak using a normal voice due to abnormal laryngeal muscle contraction.

spastic paralysis

loss of muscle function associated with involuntary muscle contraction, increased tendon reflexes, and pathological reflexes.

spasticity

elevated muscle tone with increased resistance to stretch.

spatial integration

the addition of EPSPs and IPSPs over a neuron’s surface.

specific immunity

humoral and cell-mediated immune responses that protect us against specific microorganisms and their toxins that we develop after birth through exposure to microorganisms and vaccinations.

spectral analysis

division of heart rate variability into its component rhythms that operate within different frequency bands.

spike

a negative transient with a pointed peak at conventional paper speeds, 20-70 ms duration, and 40-100 uV amplitude.

spike-and-slow-wave complex

a spike followed by a higher amplitude slow wave at 3 Hz. In an absence seizure, the amplitudes are very high (e.g., 160 uV).

spindle waves

waves that originate in the thalamus and occur during unconsciousness and stage II sleep.

spinohypothalamic tract

pathway that bypasses the reticular formation and projects to the hypothalamus, amygdaloid complex, nucleus accumbens, and septum. This tract may contribute to our autonomic, neuroendocrine, and emotional responses to noxious stimuli.

spinomesencephalic tract

pathway that travels with the spinotectal tract and targets the periaqueductal gray (PAG), locus coeruleus, and tectum. This tract may convey information concerning motivational and emotional responses to pain.

spinoreticular tract

also called the paleospinothalamic tract. This pathway targets the reticular formation and then the thalamic parafascicular nuclei and intralaminar nuclei. Axons from these thalamic nuclei project to the anterior cingulate, amygdala, and hypothalamus. This tract may contribute to arousal and convey information about our emotional response to pain, including suffering.

spinothalamic tract

also called the neospinothalamic tract. This pathway targets the ventral posterior nucleus (VPN) of the thalamus, like the dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system. VPN neurons project to corresponding somatosensory cortical region. This tract may convey information about pain and temperature.

splenius capitis

(cervical muscles): muscles retrained in torticollis. Acting together, they extend the head, acting individually, they laterally flex and rotate the head to the same side as the contracting muscle.

splinting

SEMG elevation on the injured side of the body.

spontaneous recovery

in classical conditioning, the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response (CR) following a rest period. For example, your blood pressure increase returns after 6 months away from the dentist’s office.

spontaneous responses

physiological changes in the absence of detectable stimuli. For example, skin conductance responses when no tones are presented to a subject.

stabiles

individuals who show lower resting SCLs and smaller SCRs, and slower responses to stimuli and return to resting levels than labiles. They seem less effective than labiles in their response to changing environmental demands and allocation of attentional resources to environmental events.

standard deviation

the square root of the average squared deviations from the mean.

Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales

instruments that measure hypnotizability.

startle response

in response to an unexpected stimulus, a client contracts the rectus abdominis, producing thoracic breathing that can escalate to hyperventilation.

stem effect

distortion of temperature measurements by ambient temperature when the first 3-5 inches of a thermistor are not secured against the skin.

Sterman’s grand mal epilepsy protocol

procedure that trains an epileptic patient to increase SMR (12-14 Hz) amplitude and duration while theta (4-7 Hz), beta (20+ Hz), epileptiform spikes, and EMG artifact are suppressed during 36 sessions. The aim is to normalize the waking and sleep EEG with elevated SMR and suppressed theta and beta activity.

sternocleidomastoids

muscles retrained in cerebral palsy and torticollis. Acting together, they flex the cervical vertebral column and extend the head, acting individually, they laterally flex and rotate the head to the opposite side (contract left SCM and head twists to right). Actives are centered 50% of the distance from the mastoid (bulge behind the outer ear) to the medial end of the clavicle (collarbone), which places them below the jaw along a vertical line.

stimulus discrimination

in classical conditioning, when a conditioned response (CR) is elicited by one conditioned stimulus (CS), but not by another. For example, your blood pressure increases during a painful dental procedure, but not during an uncomfortable blood draw.

stimulus generalization

in classical conditioning, when stimuli that resemble a conditioned stimulus (CS) elicit the same conditioned response (CR). For example, when your blood pressure increases during painful dental procedures and an uncomfortable blood draw.

stimulus-response specificity

specific stimuli elicit a distinctive response pattern in most subjects, instead of simply altering activation. For example, subjects may increase their skeletal muscle tone when they are challenged to compete.

stratum corneum

outermost epidermal layer that is abraded during skin preparation for EEG and SEMG biofeedback.

stress

Selye’s term for a nonspecific response to stimuli called stressors.

stress-diathesis model

view that stressors interact with our inherited or acquired biological vulnerabilities, diatheses, to produce medical and psychological symptoms.

stress incontinence

involuntary loss of a variable amount of urine when intra-abdominal pressure increases. The problem is the failure of the urethral sphincters to resist urinary flow that is possibly caused by excessive urethral movement due to insufficient pelvic floor support and intrinsic sphincter deficiency.

stressors

Selye’s term for stimuli that elicit the stress response.

striated

striped. For example, skeletal muscle fibers are striped due to thin (light) and thick (dark) filaments.

striatal

basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen).

stroke

cerebrovascular accident (CVA), destruction of brain tissue (infarction) due to cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral ischemia affecting blood vessels that supply the brain. CVAs show abrupt onset and involve temporary or permanent neurological symptoms like aphasia, paralysis, or loss of sensation.

stroke rate

the number of heartbeats per minute.

stroke volume

the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle during one contraction.

Stroop test

cognitive monitoring task where color and names conflict.

structural model

Barrett and Russell’s representation of affective states within a circumplex (circular structure) based on its degrees of affective valence (unpleasant to pleasant) and affective intensity (activation to deactivation).

subarachnoid hemorrhage

the release of blood into the subarachnoid space between the protective middle meninx and the brain.

substance P

tachykinin neuropeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that plays a role in transmission of peripheral pain signals to the CNS.

substantia gelatinosa

C fibers transmit pain information to neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that is relayed to the brainstem, thalamus, and cerebral cortex.

substantia nigra

midbrain structure that projects to the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen) to control movement and that is progressively destroyed in Huntington’s and Parkinson’s disease.

sulcus

a shallow groove in the surface of the cerebral hemisphere, for example, the central sulcus.

superconductor

a material that conducts electricity without resistance.

supinators

muscles that turn the palm upward (anteriorly). For example, the supinator exposes the anterior side of the forearm.

supine

on the back. In neuromuscular rehabilitation, biofeedback training starts in this position and then moves to sitting, standing, and walking.

supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)

a regular and rapid (above 100 beats-per-minute) heart rate that originates in the SA node, atria, or AV junction located above the ventricles.

surface EMG (SEMG) biofeedback

display of muscle action potentials, detected by surface electrodes placed over skeletal muscles, back to the monitored individual.

sweat artifact

sweating change electrode contact with the scalp and generates large-scale up and down EEG line movements in several frontal channels. Abrupt, unexpected stimuli can elicit eccrine sweat gland activity that usually appears as isolated 1-2 Hz slow waves of 1- to 2-s duration at frontal and temporal sites.

sweat circuit model

Edelberg’s hypothesis that EDA is a function of sweat duct filling and action by a selective membrane in the epidermis. He proposed that duct-filling produces SCRs, while both duct-filling and the selective membrane control response recovery.

sympathectomy

sympathetic nerve lesion that may be performed in severe cases of Raynaud’s. Symptom improvement is limited to 1-2 years.

sympathetic arousal model of Raynaud’s

poorly-supported model that asserts that stressors are powerful triggers for Raynaud’s attacks and that interventions that lower sympathetic arousal will reduce symptom severity.

sympathetic cardiac accelerator nerves

nerves that arise from the medulla’s cardiovascular center that increase the rate of spontaneous depolarization in the SA and AV nodes, and increase stroke volume by strengthening the contractility of the atria and ventricles.

sympathetic cholinergic fibers

unmyelinated sympathetic motoneurons that mainly innervate eccrine sweat glands. These motoneurons release acetylcholine at the secretory portion, and a few may target the sweat duct.

sympathetic dominance

Wenger’s concept of greater sympathetic activation than parasympathetic activation.

sympathetic nervous system (SNS)

autonomic nervous system branch that regulates activities that expend stored energy, such as when we are excited. The SNS primarily controls electrodermal activity.

sympathetic overactivity hypothesis

explanation that Raynaud’s symptoms are due to increased sympathetic activity in digital nerves. This position is not supported by experimental evidence.

sympathetic responder

a response stereotypy in which an individual may increase blood pressure, heart rate, and sweat gland activity, and decrease heart rate variability and peripheral blood flow pressure when challenged by stressors.

sympathetic-adrenomedullary path (SAM) pathway

during an acute stress response, the sympathetic nervous system directs the release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine by the adrenal medulla.

sympathicotonics

Wenger’s term for sympathetic-dominant individuals who they hypothesized to suffer an elevated incidence of neurotic, psychotic, psychosomatic, and medical disorders.

synapse

specialized chemical and electrical junctions across which neurons communicate with each other and non-neural cells.

synapse-associated polyribosome complexes (SPRCs)

organelles with dendrites that can produce proteins that allow rapid remodeling of synapses. A polyribosome complex consists of several ribosomes bound to messenger RNA (mRNA). SPRCs represent one mechanism underlying synaptic plasticity.

synaptic cleft

20-40 nm fluid-filled gap between presynaptic and postsynaptic structured.

synchronous

adverb meaning that groups of neurons depolarize and hyperpolarize at the same time.

synchrony

coordinated firing of pools of neurons. EEG signals can display local synchrony, frequency synchrony, and phase synchrony.

synergists

muscles that stabilize a joint to reduce the origin’s interference with movement. For example, the deltoid and pectoralis major anchor both the arm and shoulder when the biceps brachii (agonist) contracts to flex the forearm.

synkinesis

involuntary contraction when another muscle is intentionally contracted. This is a complication of Bell palsy.

system variable

in cybernetic theory, the variable that is controlled, like room temperature.

systematic desensitization

Wolpe’s behavior therapy technique that incorporates an abbreviated version of progressive relaxation.

systemic vascular resistance

the total resistance of all systemic blood vessels that is influenced by blood viscosity (thickness), total blood vessel length, and blood vessel radius.

systole

period when the ventricles or atria contract.

systolic blood pressure

the force exerted by blood on arterial walls during contraction of the left ventricle.

T wave

ECG structure that represents ventricular repolarization.

taking back procedures

in autogenic training, standard exercises end with vigorous flexing of the arms, deep breathing, and opening the eyes, and the suggestion, “Arms firm, breathe deeply, open eyes.”

telemetry

remote monitoring and transmission of information. A biofeedback encoder measures physiological activity and transmits these data to a computer for analysis.

telencephalon

the frontal subdivision of the forebrain, including the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system.

telomerase

enzyme that adds DNA to telomeres. Telomerase levels decline with chronic stress and cellular aging.

telomere

DNA and protein that cover the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres shorten with chronic stress and cellular aging.

temperature biofeedback

display of a client’s skin temperature information back to the individual to produce desired physiological changes. Temperature biofeedback is a hypertension treatment component.

temperature biofeedback under cold challenge

procedure in which temperature biofeedback teaches the client to maintain peripheral temperature while the affected limb is cooled. This is the most effective biofeedback protocol for treating Raynaud’s.

temporal integration

the addition of EPSPs and IPSPs over time. Summation is more effective, when postsynaptic potentials are generated more closely in time.

temporal lobes

lobes separated from the rest of the cortical lobes by the Sylvian fissure. The temporal lobes process hearing, smell, and taste information, and help us understand spoken language and recognize visual objects and faces. The amygdala and hippocampus, which lie beneath the temporal cortex, play crucial roles in emotion, declarative, emotional, and working memory, and navigation.

temporalis

muscle that elevates and retracts the mandible (jaw). Actives are located above the zygomatic arch (horizontal bony ridge from temporomandibular joint to the cheek).

temporomandibular muscle and joint disorders (TMJD)

heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by dull pain around the ear, tenderness of jaw muscles, a clicking or popping noise when opening or closing the mouth, limited or abnormal opening of the mouth, headache, tooth sensitivity, and abnormal wearing of the teeth. Pain is triggered by parafunctional jaw clenching and is reported along with headache, other facial pain, neck pain, and pain in the shoulder and back.

tend-and-befriend response

Taylor and colleagues’ proposition that women may tend (nurture others) and befriend (seek and provide social support) in response to stressors.

tender points

sites of local tenderness that are located at a muscle’s insertion that are distinct from trigger points. Compression produces local pain, but not the referred pain associated with trigger points, and may increase overall pain sensitivity.

tendon

connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and transmits the force of muscle contraction to the attached bones.

tendon reflex

Golgi tendon organs are force detectors that lie in series with skeletal muscle fibers. When excessive contraction threatens to damage muscle and tendon, they inhibit the responsible alpha motor neurons to prevent injury.

tension-type headache

steady, nonthrobbing pain that may involve the fronto-temporal vertex and/or occipito-cervical areas with a lateral or bilateral distribution.

tensors

muscles that make a body part more rigid. For example, the tensor fasciae latae flexes and abducts the thigh.

terminal buttons

buds located on the ends of axon branches that form synapses and release neurochemicals to other neurons. They contain vesicles that store neurotransmitters for release when an action potential arrives. A terminal button’s presynaptic membrane may contain reuptake transporters that return neurotransmitters from the synapse or extracellular space for repackaging.

thalamus

forebrain structure above the hypothalamus that receives, filters, and distributes most sensory information. The thalamus contains neurons that can block or relay ascending sensory information. When these thalamic neurons rhythmically fire, this blocks transmission of information to the cortex. When they depolarize in response to sensory information, this integrates and transmits this information to the cortex. Inputs to the thalamus determine whether these neurons block or relay sensory information.

thenar eminence

rounded body of muscle on the palm near the base of the thumb comprised by the abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, and opponens pollicis.

thermal lag

time lag between the change in arteriole diameter and a feedback thermometer’s display of the new temperature.

thermistor

temperature-sensitive resistor.

thermoregulation

temperature control through evaporative cooling.

thermoregulatory system

in Hugdahl’s model of EDA control, this system lies in the anterior hypothalamus and produces cold sweating during trauma, in which increased sweating is accompanied by constriction of peripheral blood vessels and increased electrodermal activity in the hands and digits.

theta rhythm

4-7 Hz rhythm EEG rhythm discovered by Walter generated a cholinergic septohippocampal system that receives input from the ascending reticular formation and a noncholinergic system that originates in the entorhinal cortex, which corresponds to Brodmann areas 28 and 34 at the caudal region of the temporal lobe. This rhythm is associated with drowsiness, the transition from wakefulness to sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and the processing of information.

theta/beta training

procedure that down-trains theta and up-trains beta.

thick filaments

dark-colored filaments that are mainly composed of actin.

thin filaments

light-colored filaments that are mainly composed of myosin.

thoracic breathing

breathing pattern that primarily relies on the external intercostals to inflate the lungs, resulting in a more rapid respiration rate, excessive energy consumption, and incomplete ventilation of the lungs.

threat

in Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional Model of Stress, during primary appraisal, we evaluate events for the damage they could inflict in the future.

threshold

signal value that is a training goal, for example, 2 uv.

threshold of excitation

the membrane potential at which an axon initiates an action potential, nominally -40 mV.

thrombosis

formation of a stationary clot (thrombus) within a blood vessel that is usually a vein that obstructs circulation.

thrombus

stationary clot formed in a blood vessel that is usually a vein.

tibia

shinbone.

tibialis anterior

muscle that dorsiflexes and inverts the foot. Actives are vertically centered within an oval region around the tuberosity of the tibia (shinbone). In neuromuscular rehabilitation, this muscle is up-trained to treat foot drop.

time constant

time period during which a biological signal is averaged before it is displayed, for example, 5 s.

tinnitus

ringing in the ear when noise is absent.

titin

structural protein that links a Z disc to the M line in the center of a sarcomere to stabilize the thick filament’s position.

tongue and swallowing artifact

tongue movement contaminates the delta band and the entire EEG record detected from frontal or temporal sites may gradually move up or down. This is often a problem with dystonia patients.

tonic

background level of physiological activity. For example, a 5-minute average of hand temperature.

tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal seizures)

primary generalized seizures featuring a peculiar cry, loss of consciousness, fall, tonic-clonic convulsions of all extremities, incontinence, and amnesia for the episode. These seizures are diagnosed in fewer than 20% of adult epileptics.

torr

unit of atmospheric pressure, named after Torricelli, which equals 1 millimeter of mercury (mmHg) and is used to measure end-tidal CO2.

torticollis

cervical dystonia characterized by a twisted neck and involuntary neck muscle contraction that results in abnormal head movements and postures. These patients typically deviate the head to one side with slight neck flexion and physical therapy may incorporate SEMG biofeedback.

total knee arthroplasty (TKA)

replacement of the knee with a prosthesis.

tracking tests

checks of whether the biofeedback display mirrors client behavior. BVP amplitude should increase and then decrease as a hand is raised above the heart and then dropped below the heart. Instantaneous heart rate detected by ECG sensors should speed and slow as the client inhales and exhales. Temperature should increase as you blow warm air over a thermistor bead. SEMG amplitude should rise when your client contracts a monitored muscle.

tragus

flap at the opening of the ear.

Transactional Model of Stress

Lazarus and Folkman’s cognitive model that proposed that stress is determined by our perception of the situation.

transcendental meditation (TM)

mantric meditation developed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, in which an individual repeats Sanskrit syllables that have been assigned by an instructor based on age or personality.

transducers

devices that transform energy from one form to another. Electrodes convert ionic potentials into electrical potentials.

transfer of training

generalization from clinic to a client’s environment.

transient

single wave or sequence of regular waves, called a complex, distinguishable from background EEG activity.

transient flaccid paralysis

complete loss of muscle tone, with paralysis, seen immediately after damage to the pyramidal motor system. It usually lasts for only a few days or weeks and is gradually replaced by a more permanent state of hyperreflexia, which may lead to spastic paralysis.

transit time (TT)

in pulse wave velocity, the interval required for the pulse wave to move between two points along the arterial system.

trapezius

the most superficial back muscle is a triangular muscle sheet that covers the posterior neck and superior trunk. The upper trapezius elevates the scapula and helps extend the head, and may be retrained in torticollis.

trapezius-scalene placement

active SEMG electrodes are located on the upper trapezius and scalene muscles to measure respiratory effort.

traumatic brain injury

intracranial insult due to acceleration or direct impact that may cause permanent or temporary cognitive, physical, and psychosocial deficits, and impaired or altered consciousness.

traumatic stress

stress produced by an extremely intense stressor that disrupts coping and endangers ourselves or others.

triceps brachii (lateral head)

muscle that extends the elbow joint. Actives are centered 50% of the distance between the angle of the acromion (posterior to bony triangle at the top of the shoulder) and the olecranon process (behind the elbow).

trigeminal nerve

5th cranial nerve receives sensory information about the region from the jaw to the scalp and controls eight muscles. This nerve projects pain and temperature information concerning the face to the same thalamic nuclei targeted by the spinothalamic and spinoreticular tracts. This cranial nerve also controls biting, chewing, and swallowing. The trigeminal nerve may be activated in all primary headaches by cortical hyperexcitability producing a breakthrough headache.

trigger points

hyperirritable regions of taut bands of skeletal muscle in the muscle belly or associated fascia that characterize Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS). Pressure on these areas is painful and they can produce referred pain and tenderness, motor dysfunction, and autonomic changes.

triglycerides

potentially harmful form of lipoprotein that is decreased by exercise and increased by alcohol consumption.

triphasic disorder

classic Raynaud’s patients experience skin color changes of pallor, cyanosis, and rubor.

triphasic wave

wave that contains three deflections from baseline; in skin potential response (SPR), a triphasic waveform is a negative voltage that is followed by a positive voltage, and another negative voltage.

tunica externa

external layer of an artery that is composed of a connective tissue sheath.

tunica media

middle layer of an artery that is composed of smooth muscle and elastic fibers and controlled by sympathetic constrictor fibers (C-fibers). This is a site of neurally-controlled vasoconstriction (decrease in lumen diameter and blood flow) in the digits.

twilight learning

Budzynski’s training paradigm in which recorded material is played when theta activity replaces alpha activity.

Type A-B continuum

Friedman and Rosenman’s continuum for behavioral risk of coronary artery disease.

Type A’s

Friedman and Rosenman’s competitive, concerned with numbers and acquisition, hostile, and time-pressured individuals who they showed had a doubled risk of heart attack.

Type B’s

Friedman and Rosenman’s less-motivated individuals who do not usually exhibit Type A behaviors and who have a reduced risk of heart attack than extreme Type A’s.

Type D personality

individuals who tend to experience negative emotions, but have difficulty expressing their distress in social situations, resulting in poorer coronary heart disease prognosis.

tyramine

amino acid that can produce components of the fight-or-flight response and contribute to hyperventilation syndrome.

ultra-low-frequency (ULF) band

ECG frequency range below 0.003 Hz Very slow biological processes that include circadian rhythms, core body temperature, metabolism, and the renin-angiotensin system, and possible PNS and SNS contributions.

unconditioned response (UCR)

an innate response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) without prior learning (elevated blood pressure in response to physical pain).

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

a stimulus (physical pain) that elicits an innate response (increased blood pressure) without prior learning.

Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire (USQ)

Crandall and colleagues’ scale that identifies events—mostly hassles—experienced during the past two weeks. Higher USQ scores are associated with increased use of health services.

under-reactors

individuals who produce low amplitude SCRs and show minimal emotional reactions.

unimodal nociceptor

nociceptor that responds to only one stimulus.

unmyelinated axons

smaller-diameter axons without fatty insulation that conduct more slowly than myelinated axons.

uplift

minor positive event like receiving an unexpected call from a friend.

Uplifts Scale

Kanner and colleagues’ 138-item scale that measures positive daily experiences.

upper motor neurons

motor neurons that project from the motor region of the cerebral cortex or brainstem to synapse with spinal interneurons or lower motor neurons.

upper trapezius

muscle that rotates and elevates the scapula (shoulder blade), extends, flexes, and rotates the head and neck. Actives are centered between C7 (seventh cervical vertebra) and the angle of the acromion (posterior to bony triangle at the top of the shoulder).

urge incontinence

involuntarily emptying the entire bladder and is produced by detrusor muscle overactivity due to detrusor myopathy (abnormal muscle condition), neuropathy (nerve damage), and both myopathy and neuropathy.

urinary bladder

hollow, muscular, elastic organ located in the pelvic cavity that collects urine from the ureters and stores it for release through the urethra.

urinary incontinence

the involuntary loss of urine that is divided into urge incontinence, stress incontinence, and mixed incontinence.

vagal withdrawal

inhibition of the myelinated vagus, often by daily stressors.

vagus nerve

the parasympathetic vagus (X) nerve decreases the rate of spontaneous depolarization in the SA and AV nodes, and slow the heart rate. Heart rate increases often reflect reduced vagal inhibition.

valproic acid (Depakote)

antiepileptic drug that binds to GABA-B receptors in the amygdala and stabilizes neuron membranes and inhibits repetitive firing that is crucial to seizure activity.

variable-reactors

individuals who produce SCRs in response to a stimulus like a loud clap and then quickly return to baseline.

variance

the average squared deviation of scores from their mean.

vascular responder

response pattern where BVP and skin temperature may significantly decrease in response to a stressor.

vasoconstriction

narrowing of blood vessels due to the contraction of the smooth muscle in their walls, which is triggered by increased firing of sympathetic efferent fibers.

vasodilation

widening of blood vessels due to the relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls, which is triggered by a beta-adrenergic cascade that probably culminates in nitric oxide release.

vasovagal syncope (VVS)

in response to abnormal vagus nerve activity during stressful events, blood vessels dilate, blood pools in the lower body, the brain receives less blood, and the client becomes light-headed and may faint.

vastus lateralis

component of the quadriceps femoris located on the lateral thigh that extends the leg at the knee joint.

vastus medialis

component of the quadriceps femoris located on the medial thigh that extends the leg at the knee joint.

veins

blood vessels that route blood from tissues back to the heart and contain the same three layers found in arteries. These layers are thinner in veins due to lower pressure.

velocity feedback

display of the variation in the movement of a body part. Symptoms like hand tremor can be measured by an accelerometer.

ventral

toward the base of the skull or front of the body.

ventral posterior nucleus (VPN) of the thalamus

nucleus that integrates somatosensory information from the opposite side of the face via the trigeminal nerve. The majority of VPN axons target the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), while a minority target the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) or the posterior parietal cortex.

ventral respiratory group (VRG)

neuron clusters in the medulla of the brainstem that initiate inhalation and exhalation.

ventral striatum

the olfactory tubercle and nucleus accumbens.

ventral tegmental area

midbrain structure that distributes dopaminergic axons to the nucleus accumbens. Serotonin receptors on endorphin-releasing neurons in the hypothalamus may increase the activity of dopaminergic reward pathways by inhibiting the release of GABA at receptors on cell bodies of the ventral tegmental area neurons.

ventricular ectopic beats

premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are heartbeats originating in the ventricles instead of the sinoatrial node. These extra beats are common and benign in individuals without heart disease, and result in decreased cardiac output.

ventricular fibrillation

medical emergency in which the lower heart chambers contract in a rapid and unsynchronized fashion and cannot pump blood.

ventromedial group

descending pathway from the primary motor cortex (vestibulospinal, tectospinal, reticulospinal, and ventral corticospinal tracts) that helps execute its motor programs.

ventromedial prefrontal cortex

region of the prefrontal cortex may play a role in the calculation of risk and the emotional responses of anxiety and fear. Cortisol binding to this structure increases anxiety and fear, and disrupts and kills neurons.

venule

small vein (less than 2 mm in diameter) that collects blood from capillaries and delivers it to a vein. The low return pressure in these vessels requires valves that prevent backward blood flow.

vertex (Cz)

the intersection of imaginary lines drawn from the nasion to inion and between the two preauricular points in the International 10-10 and 10-20 systems.

very-low-frequency (VLF)

ECG frequency range of 0.003-.04 Hz that may represent temperature regulation, gastric, plasma renin fluctuations, endothelial, and physical activity influences, and possible intrinsic cardiac nervous system, PNS, and SNS contributions.

vigilance system

in Sterman’s model, a system that consists of both specific brainstem nuclei (e.g., locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei) and their diffuse connections with the thalamus, and other subcortical structures, and the cortex. Several neurotransmitter systems mediate vigilance, including cholinergic/glutamatergic (reticular formation), noradrenergic (locus coeruleus), and serotonergic (raphe) neurons.

viscera

the organs within the ventral body cavity. When the startle response constricts the viscera, this interferes with the diaphragm’s downward movement, stopping breathing.

visualization

generation of mental imagery that can be somatosensory as well as visual is a common element in interventions ranging from autogenic training to behavior therapy.

volt (V)

unit of electrical potential difference (electromotive force) that moves electrons in a circuit.

voltage (E)

the amount of electrical potential difference (electromotive force).

voltohmmeter

device that uses a DC signal to measure resistance in an electric circuit, such as between active and reference electrodes.

volume conduction

movement of a biological signal through the interstitial fluid to the skin surface.

volume expansion (hypervolemia)

increased fluid, mainly containing salt and water, in the blood. Volume expansion is a hypertension risk factor.

volume transmission

extrasynaptic neurotransmitter release from axonal varicosities, dendrites, and terminal button into the extracellular space. Monoamines like norepinephrine and serotonin are released outside the synaptic cleft.

voluntary control

intentional production of physiological change without feedback.

watt (W)

unit of power used to express signal strength in the QEEG.

waveform

the shape and form of an EEG signal.

web dorsum

temperature monitoring site on the back of the hand between the thumb and index finger.

wei ji

Chinese pictogram which represents danger and opportunity, and illustrates the negative and positive possibilities considered during primary appraisal.

white matter

layer beneath the cortex that mainly consists of myelinated axons.

Wickramasekera’s Illness Behavior Syndrome

The patient assumes a role that is reinforced by a healthcare system that treats chronic pain as if it were acute. This role consists of five components: dramatization of complaints, progressive impairment, drug misuse, progressive dependency, and reduced income.

wind-up

pain after an injury has healed because interneurons continue to activate each other in the absence of peripheral pain signals.

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

form of supraventricular arrhythmia in which there are two AV conduction pathways and a delta wave precedes the QRS complex on the ECG. This is a common cause of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.

Wolf’s (1985) Concurrent Assessment of Muscle Activity (CAMA

rehabilitation protocol in which a clinician uses biofeedback information to suggest changes in ongoing patient posture, position, or movement, and as the patient attempts the recommended change, the clinician can evaluate its effectiveness and provide new instructions. Alternatively, the clinician can directly display information to the patient to modify performance.

Wolf’s motor copy procedure

rehabilitation protocol in which a clinician asks the patient to contract an extensor on the unaffected side and then displays an EMG tracing of this effort. Next, the clinician asks the patient to match this tracing during contraction of a mirror image extensor on the affected side to teach her to substitute bilateral control for contralateral (lateral corticospinal tract) control.

working memory

short-term conscious memory system that is called “blackboard memory.”

Z discs

dense zones that separate sarcomeres.

Z-score training

strategy that attempts to normalize brain function with respect to mean values in a clinical database. EEG amplitudes that are 2 or more standard deviations above or below the database means are down-trained or uptrained to treat symptoms and improve performance.

zeroing clip

a device that short a sensor’s inputs to allow a data acquisition system to adjust for offset errors, for example, EEG or SEMG zeroing clips.

zinc/zinc-sulphate electrodes

a combination of zinc and zinc-sulphate that is used in electrodes that monitor electrodermal activity.

zygomatic arch

horizontal bony ridge from temporomandibular joint to the cheek.

zygomaticus

muscle that draws the corner of the mouth upward and outward when you smile. Actives are located above and at approximately a 45o angle from corner of the mouth.