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Adult Biofeedback Norms

Adult norms for ~ 5-minute resting conditions without feedback
or breathing instructions

Adult biofeedback norms for blood pressure, EMG, heart rate, HRV, LF power, RMSSD, SDNN, end-tidal CO2, inhalation volume, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, skin conductance level, and skin temperature


Gevirtz, R. N., Lehrer, P. M., & Schwartz, M. S. (2016). Cardiorespiratory biofeedback. In M.S. Schwartz & F. Andrasik (Eds.). Biofeedback: A practitioner’s guide (4th ed.). The Guilford Press.

Khazan, I. (2019). A guide to normal values for biofeedback. In D. Moss & F. Shaffer (eds)., Physiological recording technology and applications in biofeedback and neurofeedback. Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.

Nunan, D., Sandercock, G. R. H., & Brodie, D. A. (2010). A quantitative systematic review of normal values for short-term heart rate variability in healthy adults. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 33, 1407–1417. 

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