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Do longer exhalations increase HRV during slow-paced breathing?

Zachary Meehan and Fred Shaffer systematically reviewed 11 inhalation-to-exhalation (I/E) ratio HRV studies using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. They describe two Truman State University Center for Applied Psychophysiology experiments that addressed methodological flaws in previous I/E research. They concluded that although longer I/E ratios do not reliably increase HRV, they may be desirable for other reasons.

We invite you to download this article from Springer Nature.

Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

Zachary Meehan and Fred Shaffer are pictured below.

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