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A Deep Dive into the Delta Rhythm

Updated: Jun 25


delta

Delta EEG activity, characterized by low-frequency oscillations (0.5 to 4 Hz), plays a crucial role in various brain functions, particularly during sleep and in pathological conditions. This post explores the generators of delta activity, its significance in brain function, and its association with disease. Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=453193


delta rhythm


Delta comprises less than 5% of a healthy adult's percent of amplitude compared with 70% for occipital alpha (Thatcher, 1999). The greatest amplitude or signal strength is found in the central region of the scalp. The delta rhythm is the dominant frequency from ages 1-2 and is associated in adults with deep sleep and brain pathologies like trauma, tumors, and learning disability (Hugdahl, 1995; Thompson & Thompson, 2015).


The movie below is a 19-channel BioTrace+ /NeXus-32 display of delta activity © John S. Anderson. Brighter colors represent higher delta amplitudes. Higher peaks represent higher delta amplitudes in the graphs at the end of each line. Frequency histograms are displayed for each channel.





Delta Rhythm Generators


Delta waves are primarily associated with deep stages of sleep, especially slow-wave sleep (SWS), and are generated by the thalamocortical network. This network's synchronization of neuronal activity is critical for generating delta rhythms. Several mechanisms contribute to the generation of delta waves.


Thalamic Pacemaker Neurons


Thalamic neurons, particularly those in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), act as pacemakers for delta activity. These neurons exhibit rhythmic burst firing patterns propagated to the cortex, resulting in synchronized delta oscillations (Steriade et al., 1993).



Cortical Neurons


Cortical neurons, especially those in the neocortex, also play a significant role in generating delta waves. The interplay between excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons within cortical columns contributes to the rhythmicity observed in delta activity (Destexhe et al., 1999). Pyramidal neuron graphic © Juan Gaertner/Shutterstock.com.


pyramidal neurons


Thalamocortical Interactions

The reciprocal connections between the thalamus and cortex are essential for generating and maintaining delta rhythms. These interactions facilitate the synchronization of neuronal firing across large cortical areas, leading to the widespread presence of delta waves during sleep (Amzica & Steriade, 1998). Thalamocortical graphic © Netter.


thalamocortical



The Meaning of Delta EEG Activity

Delta activity is most prominently observed during the deep stages of non-REM sleep, which are believed to play several critical roles.

Sleep and Restoration


Delta waves are a hallmark of slow-wave sleep, a phase critical for physical and cognitive restoration. During this phase, the brain undergoes synaptic pruning, and memory consolidation. During SWS, the body undergoes several restorative processes, including tissue repair, muscle growth, and the release of growth hormones. Delta waves facilitate these processes by ensuring deep, uninterrupted sleep, which is necessary for effective physical recovery (Tononi & Cirelli, 2014). Healthy adult hypnogram from Spieshoeffer et al. (2019).


somnogram

Caption: representative polysomnogram showing healthy sleep architecture with characteristic and repetitive passage through sleep cycles. N3 represents slow-wave sleep, which occurs more during the first half of the night, whereas REM sleep is more common during the second half. Pathological sleep is characterized by reduced slow-wave sleep and/or REM sleep and/or sleep fragmentation. W: awake; N1: non-REM I sleep; N2: non-REM II sleep; N3: non-REM III sleep; R: REM sleep.


Delta activity helps in clearing metabolic waste products from the brain, such as beta-amyloid, which, if accumulated, can contribute to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's. This glymphatic clearance system is more active during SWS, supported by delta oscillations (Xie et al., 2013).


The glymphatic system is a newly discovered lymphatic system in the brain. It provides a flow of CSF through the brain's interior that helps clear cellular debris, proteins, and other wastes. Glymphatic system graphic © Claus Lunau/Science Photo Library.


glymphatic system


Delta EEG activity during sleep, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, is associated with better performance on neuropsychological tasks specific to the left prefrontal cortex in healthy older adults (Anderson & Horne, 2003). Sleep deprivation can increase delta waking amplitude.


Cognitive Performance


Delta EEG activity increases during mental tasks requiring attention to internal processing, such as difficult mental calculations and short-term memory tasks. This suggests that delta activity is related to the cognitive effort involved in internal processing (Harmony et al., 1996).



Memory Consolidation


Delta oscillations are associated with the consolidation of declarative memory. The synchronous activity of delta waves helps to transfer information from the hippocampus to the neocortex, facilitating long-term memory storage (Marshall & Born, 2007).

Homeostatic Regulation

Delta activity reflects the homeostatic regulation of sleep. Higher amounts of delta activity indicate a higher sleep pressure, which is the body's way of balancing sleep and wakefulness to maintain overall health (Achermann & Borbély, 2003).



Neuroprotection


Delta activity supports the maintenance and health of neurons, potentially protecting against the accumulation of neurotoxic substances. Regular deep sleep with sufficient delta activity is linked to a lower risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases (Varga et al., 2016).



Emotional Regulation


Adequate delta activity during deep sleep contributes to emotional stability and resilience.

Deep sleep, characterized by delta waves, helps regulate mood and emotional responses. Disruptions in delta sleep are associated with mood disorders such as depression and anxiety (Goldstein & Walker, 2014).


The Delta Rhythm in Disease


Neurodegenerative Disorders


Alterations in delta activity have been observed in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Patients with Alzheimer's disease, for example, exhibit disrupted delta oscillations, which correlate with cognitive decline and memory impairment (Varga et al., 2016).


In nondemented, amyloid-positive subjects, higher delta power is associated with clinical progression from subjective cognitive decline to mild cognitive impairment or dementia. This indicates that delta activity may be a prognostic marker for cognitive decline (Gouw et al., 2017).



Sleep Disorders


Changes in delta activity are also linked to sleep disorders like insomnia and sleep apnea. Reduced delta power during sleep is often associated with poor sleep quality and increased daytime fatigue (Chokroverty, 2017).



Psychological Disorders


Delta activity is implicated in various psychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Abnormal delta oscillations are often observed in these conditions, suggesting a link between disrupted delta activity and the pathophysiology of these disorders (Gardner et al., 2014).


Increased delta activity, along with decreased alpha activity, differentiates psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, and methamphetamine-induced psychosis. This pattern indicates dysfunctional thalamocortical connectivity and may serve as a neurophysiological biomarker for these conditions (Howells et al., 2018).

Children diagnosed with ADHD or learning disabilities may present with diffuse delta and theta. When this occurs, clinicians may inhibit 2-7 Hz instead of 4-7 Hz. Amplitude training is appropriate for inhibiting but not rewarding delta (Demos, 2019).

Low-amplitude delta may be associated with ADHD, anxiety, insomnia, and TBI. Z-score training is the safest way to uptrain delta (Demos, 2019).



Encephalopathy


Specific delta EEG patterns, such as continuous slowing and frontal intermittent delta activity (FIRDA), are associated with different pathological conditions and outcomes in encephalopathic patients. For example, delta activity is linked to alcohol/drug abuse and HIV infection, while FIRDA is associated with past cerebrovascular accidents (Sirin et al., 2019; Sutter, Stevens, & Kaplin, 2012).



Brain Lesions


Focal delta activity on EEG is significantly associated with structural brain lesions, such as those caused by strokes, tumors, and trauma. This correlation highlights the importance of delta activity in identifying underlying brain abnormalities (Gilmore & Brenner, 1981; Nazish, 2020).



Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment


In patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment not due to Alzheimer's disease, those with epileptiform EEG activity show higher temporal delta source activities. This suggests the role of neural hypersynchronization in their brain dysfunctions (Babiloni et al., 2020).


Conclusion


Delta EEG activity, generated primarily by the thalamocortical network and cortical neurons, is essential for several critical brain functions, especially during slow-wave sleep (SWS). It facilitates physical and cognitive restoration, including synaptic pruning, memory consolidation, and the clearance of metabolic waste. Delta activity is also linked to cognitive performance, homeostatic sleep regulation, neuroprotection, and emotional stability.


Recent research highlights the significance of delta activity in various health and disease contexts. In neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, disrupted delta oscillations correlate with cognitive decline. Similarly, sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea are associated with reduced delta power, leading to poor sleep quality and increased fatigue. Psychiatric conditions, including depression and schizophrenia, often exhibit abnormal delta activity, suggesting a role in their pathophysiology. Specific delta patterns are also indicative of encephalopathy, brain lesions, and amnesic mild cognitive impairment, serving as potential neurophysiological biomarkers.



Glossary


brain lesions: abnormal tissue in the brain resulting from injury or disease, such as strokes, tumors, or trauma.


cognitive restoration: the process during sleep where the brain undergoes various activities that help improve mental functions, including memory consolidation and the clearance of metabolic waste.


cortical neurons: neurons located in the brain's cortex that play a key role in various brain functions, including the generation of delta waves.


declarative memory: a type of long-term memory involving facts and information that can be consciously recalled.


delta waves: low-frequency brain oscillations ranging from 0.5 to 4 Hz, typically observed during deep stages of non-REM sleep.


encephalopathy: a broad term for any diffuse disease of the brain that alters brain function or structure, often characterized by altered mental states and various neurological symptoms.

epileptiform EEG activity: abnormal, paroxysmal EEG patterns that resemble those seen in epilepsy, often indicating a predisposition to seizures.


glymphatic clearance system: a system in the brain responsible for removing waste products, which is more active during sleep.

hippocampal-neocortical transfer: the process during sleep where information is transferred from the hippocampus to the neocortex for long-term storage.

homeostatic sleep regulation: the process by which the body balances sleep and wakefulness to maintain overall health, often indicated by the amount of delta activity.


memory consolidation: the process by which short-term memories are transformed into long-term memories during sleep.


mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a condition involving noticeable cognitive decline, greater than expected for a person's age, but not severe enough to interfere significantly with daily life or independent function.


neocortex: the part of the brain involved in higher-order brain functions, including sensory perception, cognition, and generation of delta waves.


neurodegenerative diseases: disorders characterized by the progressive degeneration of neurons, often associated with disrupted delta activity.


non-REM sleep: a phase of sleep that includes stages 1-3, with delta waves being most prominent in stage 3, also known as slow-wave sleep.


physical restoration: the process during sleep where the body repairs tissues, grows muscles, and releases growth hormones.

sleep pressure: the body's need for sleep, which increases with prolonged wakefulness and is reflected by the amount of delta activity during sleep.

slow-wave sleep (SWS): the deepest phase of non-REM sleep characterized by high amplitude, low-frequency delta waves.


synaptic pruning: the process of eliminating weaker synaptic connections in the brain during sleep, which is believed to be facilitated by delta waves.


thalamic pacemaker neurons: neurons in the thalamus that generate rhythmic burst firing patterns, contributing to the synchronization of delta waves.


thalamocortical network: the network of connections between the thalamus and cortex that plays a crucial role in generating and maintaining delta oscillations.



References


Achermann, P., & Borbély, A. A. (2003). Mathematical models of sleep regulation. Frontiers in Bioscience, 8, s683-s693. https://doi.org/10.2741/1074

Anderson, C., & Horne, J. (2003). Prefrontal cortex: links between low frequency delta EEG in sleep and neuropsychological performance in healthy, older people. Psychophysiology, 40(3), 349-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-8986.00038 Babiloni, C., Noce, G., Bonaventura, C., Lizio, R., Pascarelli, M., Tucci, F., Soricelli, A., Ferri, R., Nobili, F., Famà, F., Palma, E., Cifelli, P., Marizzoni, M., Stocchi, F., Frisoni, G., & Percio, C. (2020). Abnormalities of cortical sources of resting state delta electroencephalographic rhythms are related to epileptiform activity in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment not due to Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in Neurology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.514136 Gilmore, P., & Brenner, R. (1981). Correlation of EEG, computerized tomography, and clinical findings. Study of 100 patients with focal delta activity. Archives of Neurology, 38(6), 371-372 . https://doi.org/10.1001/ARCHNEUR.1981.00510060073013.

Goldstein, A. N., & Walker, M. P. (2014). The role of sleep in emotional brain function. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10, 679-708. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153716


Gouw, A., Alsema, A., Tijms, B., Borta, A., Scheltens, P., Stam, C., & Flier, W. (2017). EEG spectral analysis as a putative early prognostic biomarker in nondemented, amyloid positive subjects. Neurobiology of Aging, 57, 133-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.05.017

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Tononi, G., & Cirelli, C. (2014). Sleep and the price of plasticity: From synaptic and cellular homeostasis to memory consolidation and integration. Neuron, 81(1), 12-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2013.12.025


Varga, A. W., Kishi, A., Mantua, J., Lim, J., Koushyk, V., Leiberg, S., Heintz, C., Naik, S., Rapoport, D. M., & Ayappa, I. (2016). Abnormal sleep spindles and slow waves in sleep apnea and Alzheimer disease. Sleep, 39(4), 775-787. https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.5634


Xie, L., Kang, H., Xu, Q., Chen, M. J., Liao, Y., Thiyagarajan, M., O'Donnell, J., Christensen, D. J., Nicholson, C., Iliff, J. J., Takano, T., Deane, R., & Nedergaard, M. (2013). Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain. Science, 342(6156), 373-377. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1241224



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