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Comprehensive Brodmann Area Guide

Updated: Jan 18



Brodmann areas are a historically important division of the cerebral cortex into distinct regions based on their cytoarchitecture or neuronal arrangement and connections. The concept of Brodmann areas was introduced by the German neurologist Korbinian Brodmann in the early 20th century (Brodmann, 1909). Brodmann's work has significantly impacted the understanding of the functional organization of the cortex and remains influential in contemporary neuroscience research.


Brodmann's classification was based on his observations of differences in the cellular organization of the cortex across various mammalian species, including humans. He identified 43 numbered areas in the human brain by examining the cellular organization, cell types, and layer thickness (Zilles & Amunts, 2010). Although some refinements have been made since Brodmann's initial classification, many identified areas retain their original numbering.


Brodmann areas


The Importance of Brodmann Areas

The identification of Brodmann areas has facilitated the investigation of functional specialization within the cortex. Most cortical functions involve the networked activity of multiple Brodmann areas. Several Brodmann areas are now associated with specific functions, such as primary sensory and motor areas, as well as higher cognitive functions like language processing and decision-making (Glasser et al., 2016). For instance, Brodmann area 4 corresponds to the primary motor cortex, area 17 to the primary visual cortex, and areas 44 and 45 to Broca's area, which is crucial for speech production.


While Brodmann areas provide a valuable framework for understanding cortical organization, they do not capture the full complexity of the brain's functional architecture. Advances in neuroimaging techniques have identified additional areas and functional networks, highlighting the intricate organization of the cortex beyond Brodmann's classification (Glasser et al., 2016).


Researchers have revised the Brodmann maps and correlated areas with their functions. The Brodmann maps below were contributed by Mark Dow, Research Assistant at the Brain Development Lab at the University of Oregon, to Wikimedia Commons.

Mark Dow revised Brodmann


Areas 3, 1, and 2: Primary Somatosensory Cortex (S1)

The primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is a critical region for processing somatosensory information in the brain. It is involved in processing touch, proprioception, and temperature. These four cortical areas contain separate somatotopic maps (Purves, 2018). Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.



Brodmann areas

The S1 is located in the postcentral gyrus, mainly in Brodmann areas 3, 1, and 2. These areas have distinct functions; Brodmann area 3 receives and processes cutaneous and proprioceptive inputs, area 1 processes tactile stimuli, and area 2 integrates proprioceptive and tactile inputs (Kaas, 2008). Location

The S1 is located in the parietal lobe, immediately posterior to the central sulcus. It is bordered by the primary motor cortex (M1) anteriorly and the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) posteriorly. The closest sites are C3 and C4, which overlie the central sulcus (Jasper, 1958).


Connections

The S1 strongly connects with other cortical and subcortical areas, including the M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, posterior parietal cortex, and thalamus (Lemon, 2008). These connections are essential for sensorimotor integration and control.


Participation in brain networks

The S1 is a critical node in the somatosensory network, which includes other areas like the S2, insular cortex, and parietal operculum. It also participates in the sensorimotor network, interacting with the motor and premotor cortices (Sepulcre, 2012).


Functions The S1 is crucial for processing somatosensory information like touch, proprioception, and temperature. It plays a significant role in perceiving object features, body awareness, and sensorimotor integration. Role in clinical disorders The altered functioning of the S1 has been implicated in various clinical conditions, including neuropathic pain (Baliki et al., 2011), phantom limb pain (Makin et al., 2013), and stroke-related sensory deficits (Carey et al., 2002).



Area 4: Primary Motor Cortex (M1)

The primary motor cortex (M1) is a key region in the brain responsible for the execution of voluntary movements. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The M1 is located in the precentral gyrus, mainly in Brodmann area 4. It contains large pyramidal neurons, known as Betz cells, which are essential for motor control (Geyer et al., 1996). Location

The M1 is situated in the frontal lobe, immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is bordered by the posteriorly primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and anteriorly premotor cortex. The closest sites are C3 and C4, which overlie the central sulcus (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The M1 has strong connections with various cortical and subcortical areas, including the S1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, posterior parietal cortex, and thalamus (Lemon, 2008). These connections are critical for sensorimotor integration and control.


Participation in brain networks

The M1 is a central node in the sensorimotor network, interacting with the somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, and other motor-related areas (Sepulcre, 2012). Functions The primary function of the M1 is the execution of voluntary movements. M1 neurons primarily control movements rather than discrete muscles (Breedlove & Watson, 2023). It plays a critical role in planning, controlling, and coordinating complex motor tasks. Role in clinical disorders Alterations in M1 function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including motor deficits following stroke (Ward, 2004), Parkinson's disease (Wu & Hallett, 2013), and motor neuron diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Kew & Leigh, 1997).



Areas 5 and 7: Somatosensory Association Cortex (SAC)

The somatosensory association cortex (SAC) is involved in the integration and interpretation of somatosensory information coming from the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The SAC is mainly located in Brodmann areas 5 and 7 within the posterior parietal cortex (Culham & Kanwisher, 2001). Location

The SAC is situated in the parietal lobe, superior to the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), and posterior to the postcentral gyrus. The closest sites are likely P3 and P4, which overlie the parietal cortex.

Connections

The SAC has strong connections with various cortical and subcortical regions, including the S1, primary motor cortex (M1), premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, posterior parietal cortex, and thalamus (Cavada & Goldman-Rakic, 1989). These connections are critical for sensorimotor integration, spatial awareness, and higher-order sensory processing.


Participation in brain networks

The SAC is a key node in the somatosensory network, including areas like the S1, S2, and insular cortex. Additionally, it is part of the dorsal attention network, which is involved in attentional control and spatial processing (Corbetta & Shulman, 2002). Functions The SAC is essential for integrating and interpreting somatosensory information, including tactile and proprioceptive stimuli. It plays a significant role in sensorimotor integration, spatial awareness, and attention. Role in clinical disorders Alterations in SAC function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including somatosensory neglect (Vallar et al., 2003), spatial processing deficits (Whitlock et al., 2012), and somatosensory deficits in autism spectrum disorder (Cascio et al., 2012).



Area 6: Supplementary Motor Cortex and Premotor Cortex

The supplementary motor cortex (SMA) and premotor cortex (PMC) are critical regions for planning and executing voluntary movements. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The SMA is primarily located in Brodmann area 6, which is situated on the medial aspect of the frontal lobe (Picard & Strick, 2001). The PMC is also predominantly found in Brodmann area 6 but is located on the lateral aspect of the frontal lobe (Wise et al., 1997). Location

The SMA is located in the medial part of the frontal lobe, superior to the cingulate sulcus and anterior to the paracentral lobule. The PMC is situated in the lateral part of the frontal lobe, anterior to the primary motor cortex (M1). The closest sites are likely FC3 and FC4, which overlie the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

Connections

Both the SMA and PMC have strong connections with various cortical and subcortical areas, including the M1, primary somatosensory cortex (S1), posterior parietal cortex, and basal ganglia (Lemon, 2008; Nachev et al., 2008). These connections are critical for sensorimotor integration, movement planning, and execution.


Participation in brain networks

The SMA and PMC are central nodes in the sensorimotor network, interacting with the M1, S1, and other motor-related areas (Sepulcre, 2012). Functions The SMA and PMC are essential for motor planning, execution, and coordination of complex movements. The SMA is particularly involved in initiating and controlling internally generated movements, while the PMC is more concerned with the planning and execution of visually-guided movements (Wise et al., 1997; Picard & Strick, 2001). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in SMA and PMC function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including movement disorders like Parkinson's disease (Wu & Hallett, 2013), apraxia (Haaland et al., 2000), and motor deficits following stroke (Ward, 2004).



Area 8: Frontal Eye Field (FEF)

The frontal eye field (FEF) is essential for the control of eye movements and visual attention. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The FEF is predominantly situated in Brodmann area 8, located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Paus, 1996). Location

The FEF is located in the anterior bank of the precentral sulcus within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, close to the border with the primary motor cortex (M1) (Paus, 1996). The closest sites are likely F3 and F4, which overlie the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

Connections

The FEF has extensive connections with other cortical and subcortical regions, including the parietal cortex, superior colliculus, thalamus, and extrastriate visual areas (Schall, 2002; Stanton et al., 2005). These connections are crucial for visual attention, saccadic eye movements, and smooth pursuit.


Participation in brain networks

The FEF is a key node in the dorsal attention network responsible for goal-directed attention and eye movement control. This network also includes the intraparietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule (Corbetta & Shulman, 2002). Functions The FEF plays a crucial role in controlling saccadic eye movements, smooth pursuit, and visual attention. It is involved in the initiation, planning, and execution of eye movements, as well as the allocation of attention to relevant visual stimuli (Schall, 2002). The FEF is vital in cognitive functions, including attention orientation, visual consciousness, access to our conscious experience, perceptual performance, and decision-making (Vernet et al., 2014). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in FEF function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Mahone et al., 2011), oculomotor apraxia (Rizzo et al., 1996), and progressive supranuclear palsy (Burrell et al., 2012).



Areas 9 and 46: Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC)

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which consists of distinct regions, is essential for higher-order cognitive functions, including working memory, executive control, and decision-making (Ahuja & Rodriguez, 2022). Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The DLPFC is primarily located in Brodmann areas 9 and 46 within the lateral aspect of the frontal lobe (Petrides, 2005). Location

The DLPFC is situated in the lateral portion of the frontal lobe, superior and anterior to the premotor cortex and primary motor cortex (M1). The closest sites are likely F3 and F4.

Connections

The DLPFC has extensive connections with other cortical and subcortical regions, including the parietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia (Petrides & Pandya, 2002). These connections are critical for cognitive control, working memory, and decision-making.


Participation in brain networks

The DLPFC is a key node in the frontoparietal control network, which is responsible for executive control, and the working memory network, which maintains and manipulates information (Cabeza & Nyberg, 2000; Vincent et al., 2008). Functions The DLPFC plays a crucial role in higher-order cognitive functions such as working memory, executive control, and decision-making. It allocates cognitive resources, goal-directed behavior, task switching, and the flexible adaptation of behavior in response to changing demands (Breedlove & Watson, 2023; Petrides, 2005). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in DLPFC function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including schizophrenia (Barch, 2005), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Cortese et al., 2012), and major depressive disorder (MDD; Drevets et al., 2008).



Area 10: Anterior Prefrontal Cortex (aPFC)

The anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC), also referred to as the frontopolar cortex, is involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as decision-making, planning, and reasoning. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The aPFC is primarily located in Brodmann area 10, situated at the most anterior part of the frontal lobe (Ramnani & Owen, 2004). Location

The aPFC is located at the most rostral part of the frontal lobe, anterior to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex. The closest sites are likely Fp1 and Fp2, which overlie the frontal pole.

Connections

The aPFC has extensive connections with other cortical and subcortical regions, including the DLPFC, orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, temporal cortex, and thalamus (Burgess et al., 2007). These connections are essential for complex cognitive tasks, multitasking, and mentalizing.


Participation in brain networks

The aPFC is a key node in the frontoparietal control network, which is responsible for executive control, as well as the default mode network (DMN), which is involved in self-referential processing and mentalizing (Vincent et al., 2008; Spreng et al., 2009). Functions The aPFC involves higher-order cognitive processes such as decision-making, planning, reasoning, multitasking, and mentalizing. It plays a crucial role in coordinating and integrating information from various cognitive domains and is responsible for goal-directed behavior and social cognition (Ramnani & Owen, 2004). The aPFC is engaged in various tasks, such as problem-solving, memory recall, future-oriented memory, source and context memory, task-switching, and attention reallocation (Ramnani & Owen, 2004). The aPFC contributes to high-level nociception and pain processing (Peng et al., 2018). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in aPFC function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Gilbert et al., 2008), schizophrenia (Perlstein et al., 2001), and major depressive disorder (MDD; Drevets et al., 2008).



Areas 11, 12, 13, and 47: Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC)

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) processes reward, emotion, and decision-making and integrates sensory information with emotional valence. Graphics © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas


Brodmann areas


Brodmann areas

The OFC primarily encompasses Brodmann areas 11, 12, 13, and 47, located in the ventral portion of the frontal lobe (Kringelbach, 2005). Location

The OFC is situated in the ventral part of the frontal lobe, just above the orbits (eye sockets). The anterior prefrontal cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex border it. The closest sites are likely Fp1 and Fp2, which overlie the ventral and rostral portions of the frontal lobe.

Connections

The OFC has extensive connections with other cortical and subcortical regions, including the amygdala, insula, cingulate cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, and sensory cortices (Kringelbach, 2005; Price, 2007). These connections are essential for emotion processing, reward-based decision-making, and social cognition.


Participation in brain networks

The OFC is a key node in the salience network, which is responsible for detecting and integrating emotionally and motivationally salient stimuli, and the default mode network (DMN), which is involved in self-referential processing and social cognition (Seeley et al., 2007; Spreng et al., 2009). Functions The OFC is crucial in processing reward, emotion, and decision-making. It integrates sensory information with emotional valence, evaluates outcomes and actions, and represents social and emotional information (Kringelbach, 2005). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in OFC function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (Menzies et al., 2008), major depressive disorder (MDD) (Drevets, 2007), bipolar disorder (BD) (Blumberg et al., 2003), and addiction (Volkow & Fowler, 2000). Depression may be associated with heightened responsiveness and increased connectivity in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (not linked to rewards), while it is connected to reduced responsiveness and connectivity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (related to rewards; Rolls, Cheng, & Feng, 2020).



Areas 13-16 and 52: Insular Cortex (Insula)

The insular cortex, or insula, is involved in a wide range of functions, including interoception, emotion processing, pain perception, and cognitive control. Graphics © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas


Brodmann areas


Brodmann areas

The insular cortex comprises Brodmann areas 13, 14, 15, 16, and parts of area 52. These include sensorimotor, central-olfactogustatory, socio-emotional. and cognitive anterior-dorsal regions (Kurth et al., 2010). Location

The insular cortex is situated deep within the lateral sulcus, which separates the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe. The opercula of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes cover it.

Connections

The insular cortex has extensive connections with various cortical and subcortical regions, including the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex, primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and thalamus (Nieuwenhuys, 2012). These connections contribute to the diverse functions of the insula.


Participation in brain networks

The insular cortex is a key node in the salience network, which is responsible for detecting and integrating emotionally and motivationally salient stimuli, and the central autonomic network (CAN), which is involved in autonomic regulation (Seeley et al., 2007; Thayer et al., 2012). Functions The insular cortex is crucial in interoception, emotion processing, pain perception, and cognitive control. It represents internal bodily states, integrates sensory and emotional information, and modulates cognitive and affective processes (Craig, 2009). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in insular cortex function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including anxiety disorders (Paulus & Stein, 2006), major depressive disorder (MDD; Sliz & Hayley, 2012), addiction (Naqvi & Bechara, 2010), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Di Martino et al., 2009).



Area 17: Primary Visual Cortex (V1)

The primary visual cortex (V1), or the striate cortex, is responsible for processing basic visual information, such as orientation, spatial frequency, and color. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The primary visual cortex is primarily located in Brodmann area 17, which is situated in the occipital lobe (Horton & Adams, 2005). Location

The primary visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe, along the calcarine sulcus, which runs horizontally through the medial part of the lobe. The closest sites are likely O1 and O2, which overlie the occipital lobe.

Connections

The primary visual cortex receives input from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus and sends output to the secondary visual cortex (V2) and other extrastriate areas (V3, V4, V5/MT). These connections are essential for the hierarchical processing of visual information (Felleman & Van Essen, 1991).


Participation in brain networks

The primary visual cortex is a key node in the visual processing network responsible for processing and interpreting visual information from the retina. This network includes other areas of the occipital lobe and extends to the parietal and temporal cortices (Nassi & Callaway, 2009). Functions The primary visual cortex processes basic visual information, such as orientation, spatial frequency, and color. It forms the initial stage of the hierarchical processing of visual information and is critical for visual perception (Horton & Adams, 2005). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in primary visual cortex function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including amblyopia (lazy eye; Hess et al., 2010), cortical blindness (Celesia, 2005), and visual hallucinations in conditions like Charles Bonnet syndrome (Griffiths, 2000).



Areas 18 and 19: Secondary Visual Cortex (V2)

The secondary visual cortex (V2), also known as the prestriate cortex, is involved in the further processing and integration of visual information received from the primary visual cortex (V1). Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The secondary visual cortex is primarily located in Brodmann areas 18 and 19, which are situated in the occipital lobe (Tootell et al., 1998). Location

The secondary visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe, surrounding the primary visual cortex along the calcarine sulcus, extending to the lateral parts of the occipital lobe. The closest sites are likely O1 and O2.

Connections

The V2 receives input from the primary visual cortex (V1). It sends output to higher-order extrastriate areas (V3, V4, V5/MT) and other cortical regions involved in visual processing, including the parietal and temporal cortices (Felleman & Van Essen, 1991).


Participation in brain networks

The secondary visual cortex is a key node in the visual processing network responsible for processing and interpreting visual information from the retina. This network includes other areas of the occipital lobe and parietal and temporal cortices (Nassi & Callaway, 2009). Functions The secondary visual cortex is involved in further processing and integrating visual information received from the primary visual cortex. It is crucial in processing complex visual attributes, such as form, color, and motion (Tootell et al., 1998). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in secondary visual cortex function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including visual agnosia, which is characterized by the inability to recognize objects despite normal visual acuity and intact primary visual cortex function (Milner & Goodale, 2008).



Areas 18, 19, 37, 21, and 22: Visual Association Cortex (V3, V4, V5)

The visual association cortex, also known as the higher-order extrastriate cortex, is responsible for the advanced processing of visual information, such as object recognition, face perception, and processing of complex visual scenes. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The visual association cortex comprises several Brodmann areas, including areas 18, 19, 37, 21, and 22, mainly situated in the occipital and temporal lobes (Tootell et al., 1998; Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006). Location

The visual association cortex is located primarily in the occipital and temporal lobes, surrounding the primary (V1) and secondary (V2) visual cortices. It includes regions such as the fusiform face area (FFA), the parahippocampal place area (PPA), and the lateral occipital complex (LOC; Epstein & Kanwisher, 1998; Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006; Malach et al., 1995). The closest sites are likely O1, O2, T5, and T6, which overlie the occipital and temporal lobes.

Connections

The visual association cortex receives input from the primary (V1) and secondary (V2) visual cortices and has extensive connections with other cortical and subcortical regions, including the parietal lobe, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala (Felleman & Van Essen, 1991; Kravitz et al., 2013).


Participation in brain networks

The visual association cortex is a key component of the ventral visual processing stream, also known as the "what" pathway, responsible for object recognition and processing of complex visual scenes (Kravitz et al., 2011). Functions The visual association cortex is involved in advanced visual processing, including object recognition, face perception, processing of complex visual scenes, and integration of visual information with other sensory modalities (Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006; Tootell et al., 1998). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in visual association cortex function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including prosopagnosia (face blindness; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006), visual agnosia (Milner & Goodale, 2008), and higher-order visual processing deficits in conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Simmons et al., 2009).



Areas 20 and 37: Inferior Temporal Gyrus (ITG)

The inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) is a part of the temporal lobe involved in high-level visual processing and object recognition. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas


Brodmann areas

The inferior temporal gyrus primarily includes Brodmann areas 20 and 37 (Amunts et al., 2000). Location

The inferior temporal gyrus is located in the ventral part of the temporal lobe, below the middle temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, and above the fusiform gyrus. The closest sites are likely T5 (or TP7) and T6 (or TP8), which overlie the temporal lobes.

Connections

The ITG has extensive connections with other cortical and subcortical regions, including the primary and secondary visual cortices, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex (Kravitz et al., 2013; Felleman & Van Essen, 1991).


Participation in brain networks

The ITG is a key component of the ventral visual processing stream, also known as the "what" pathway, responsible for object recognition and processing of complex visual scenes (Kravitz et al., 2011). Functions The ITG is involved in high-level visual processing, object recognition, semantic processing, and the integration of visual information with other sensory modalities (Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in ITG function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including visual agnosia, prosopagnosia (face blindness), and higher-order visual processing deficits in conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006; Simmons et al., 2009).



Areas 21 and 39: Middle Temporal Gyrus (MTG)

The middle temporal gyrus (MTG) is a part of the temporal lobe involved in various functions, such as semantic processing, language, and high-level visual processing. Graphics © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The MTG primarily includes Brodmann areas 21 and 39 (Amunts et al., 2000). Location

The MTG is located in the lateral part of the temporal lobe, between the superior temporal gyrus (above) and the inferior temporal gyrus (below), and adjacent to the superior temporal sulcus.

Connections

The MTG has extensive connections with other cortical and subcortical regions, including the primary and secondary visual cortices, the angular gyrus, the fusiform gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex (Kravitz et al., 2013; Felleman & Van Essen, 1991).


Participation in brain networks

The MTG participates in various brain networks, including the ventral visual processing stream ("what" pathway) for object recognition and processing of complex visual scenes (Kravitz et al., 2011), and the language network for semantic processing and word retrieval (Binder et al., 2009). Functions The MTG is involved in various functions, such as semantic processing, language comprehension, word retrieval, and high-level visual processing, including object and face recognition (Binder et al., 2009; Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in MTG function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including semantic dementia (Hodges et al., 1992), language impairments in aphasia (Dronkers et al., 2004), and higher-order visual processing deficits in conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Simmons et al., 2009).



Areas 22, 39, and 40: Superior Temporal Gyrus (STG)

The superior temporal gyrus (STG), including Wernicke's area, is a part of the temporal lobe involved in various functions such as language comprehension, auditory processing, and social cognition. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

Wernicke's area primarily includes Brodmann area 22 and, to some extent, areas 39 and 40 (Amunts et al., 2000). Location

Wernicke's area is located in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus, usually in the left hemisphere, near the lateral sulcus. The STG runs laterally along the temporal lobe, above the middle temporal gyrus. The closest site is likely T5 (or TP7) for the left hemisphere, where Wernicke's area is typically located.

Connections

Wernicke's area has extensive connections with other language-related regions, including Broca's area (via the arcuate fasciculus), the angular gyrus, and other parts of the superior temporal gyrus (Friederici, 2009). The STG also connects with the primary and secondary auditory cortices and social cognition and memory regions.


Participation in brain networks

Wernicke's area participates in the language network, playing a crucial role in language comprehension and semantic processing (Binder et al., 2009). The STG is also involved in the auditory processing network and the social cognition network. Functions Wernicke's area involves language comprehension, semantic processing, and integrating auditory information into meaningful speech (Price, 2012). The STG also plays a role in auditory processing, social cognition, and memory. Role in clinical disorders Alterations in the function of Wernicke's area and the STG have been implicated in various clinical conditions, such as Wernicke's aphasia, characterized by impaired language comprehension and fluent but nonsensical speech (Dronkers et al., 2004). The STG has also been implicated in auditory processing deficits and social cognition impairments in conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Boddaert et al., 2004).



Area 23: Ventral Posterior Cingulate Cortex (vPCC)

The ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC) is a region within the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which is a part of the limbic system involved in various functions such as memory, emotion, and self-referential processing. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The vPCC primarily includes Brodmann area 23 (Vogt et al., 2006). Location

The vPCC is located in the medial part of the brain, in the posterior cingulate cortex, and ventral to the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC). It is positioned between the precuneus and the corpus callosum. The closest sites are likely Pz and CPz, which are located over the midline parietal and central regions, respectively.

Connections

The vPCC connects with various brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and lateral parietal regions (Leech & Sharp, 2014; Utevsky et al., 2014).


Participation in brain networks

The vPCC is a key component of the default mode network (DMN), which is active during rest and involved in self-referential thinking, autobiographical memory, and social cognition (Raichle et al., 2001; Buckner et al., 2008). Functions The vPCC is involved in various functions, such as self-referential thinking, autobiographical memory, social cognition, and emotional processing (Leech & Sharp, 2014; Utevsky et al., 2014). Role in clinical disorders Alterations in vPCC function have been implicated in various clinical conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (Buckner et al., 2005), major depressive disorder (Sheline et al., 2010), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Padmanabhan et al., 2017).



Areas 24 and 25: Ventral Anterior Cingulate Cortex (vACC)

The ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) is a region within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is part of the limbic system and involved in various functions, such as emotion processing, reward-based learning, and decision-making. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The vACC primarily includes Brodmann areas 24 and 25 (Vogt, 2005). Location

The vACC is located in the medial part of the brain, in the anterior cingulate cortex, ventral to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). It is positioned anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum. The closest sites are likely FCz and Cz, which are located over the midline frontal and central regions, respectively.

Connections

The vACC has connections with various brain regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and nucleus accumbens (Bush et al., 2000; Etkin et al., 2011).


Participation in brain networks

The vACC is a key component of the salience network, which detects and integrates salient emotional and sensory stimuli and modulates attention and cognitive control (Menon, 2011; Seeley et al., 2007). Functions The vACC is implicated in various cognitive and emotional functions, including error detection, conflict monitoring, emotion regulation, empathy, and social cognition (Bush et al., 2000; Etkin et al., 2011). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the vACC have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorders (Drevets et al., 2008; Etkin et al., 2010).



Areas 25 and 24b: Subgenual Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (vmPFC)

The subgenual region of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is an important brain region involved in various cognitive and emotional processes. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

The subgenual region of the vmPFC primarily consists of Brodmann areas 25 and 24b (Ongür et al., 2003). Location

The subgenual region of the vmPFC is located in the medial prefrontal cortex, ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum, and adjacent to the anterior cingulate cortex (Mayberg, 2003). Its nearby EEG electrode positions include Fp1, Fp2, Fz, and AFz, located along the scalp's midline (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The subgenual region of the vmPFC has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and other prefrontal areas (Ongür et al., 2003; Price & Drevets, 2010).


Participation in brain networks

The subgenual vmPFC is a key component of the default mode network (DMN) and the affective network, involved in self-referential processing, emotion regulation, and decision-making (Buckner et al., 2008; Rudebeck et al., 2014). Functions The subgenual vmPFC is implicated in various cognitive and emotional functions, including value-based decision-making, emotion regulation, self-referential processing, and social cognition (Rudebeck et al., 2014; Roy et al., 2012). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the subgenual vmPFC have been implicated in several psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Mayberg, 2003; Price & Drevets, 2010).



Areas 29 and 30: Ectosplenial Retrosplenial Cerebral Cortex

The ectosplenial region is not a widely recognized or well-established region within the human retrosplenial cortex. However, the retrosplenial cortex is a crucial brain area involved in various cognitive processes, particularly spatial memory, and navigation. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The retrosplenial cortex mainly comprises Brodmann areas 29 and 30, which are located in the posterior cingulate cortex (Vogt et al., 2006). Location

The retrosplenial cortex is situated in the medial parietal lobe, posterior to the splenium of the corpus callosum, and adjacent to the posterior cingulate cortex (Vann et al., 2009). Its nearby EEG electrode positions include Pz, CPz, and Oz, located along the midline of the scalp (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The retrosplenial cortex has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, and other parietal and frontal areas (Vann et al., 2009).


Participation in brain networks

The retrosplenial cortex is a key component of the default mode network (DMN) and is involved in spatial memory, episodic memory, and self-referential processing (Buckner et al., 2008). Functions The retrosplenial cortex is implicated in various cognitive functions, including spatial memory, navigation, episodic memory, and scene construction (Epstein, 2008; Vann et al., 2009). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the retrosplenial cortex have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, amnesia, and schizophrenia, which often involve impairments in spatial memory and navigation (Maguire, 2001; Mendez & Cherrier, 2003).



Areas 29 and 30: Retrosplenial Cingulate Cortex

The retrosplenial cingulate cortex is an important brain region involved in various cognitive processes, particularly related to spatial memory and navigation. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The retrosplenial cortex mainly comprises Brodmann areas 29 and 30, which are located in the posterior cingulate cortex (Vogt et al., 2006). Location

The retrosplenial cortex is situated in the medial parietal lobe, posterior to the splenium of the corpus callosum, and adjacent to the posterior cingulate cortex (Vann et al., 2009). Its nearby EEG electrode positions include Pz, CPz, and Oz, located along the midline of the scalp (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The retrosplenial cortex has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, and other parietal and frontal areas (Vann et al., 2009).


Participation in brain networks

The retrosplenial cortex is a key component of the default mode network (DMN) and is involved in spatial memory, episodic memory, and self-referential processing (Buckner et al., 2008). Functions The retrosplenial cortex is implicated in various cognitive functions, including spatial memory, navigation, episodic memory, and scene construction (Vann et al., 2009; Epstein, 2008). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the retrosplenial cortex have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, amnesia, and schizophrenia, which often involve impairments in spatial memory and navigation (Maguire, 2001; Mendez & Cherrier, 2003).



Areas 24, 32, and 33: Cingulate Cortex

The cingulate cortex is an important brain region involved in various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The cingulate cortex is divided into several subregions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; Brodmann areas 24, 32, and 33) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC; Brodmann areas 23, 29, and 30; Vogt, 2009). Location

The cingulate cortex is located in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex, surrounding the corpus callosum, with the ACC situated anteriorly and the PCC situated posteriorly (Vogt, 2009). EEG electrode positions near the cingulate cortex include Fz, FCz, and Cz, located along the scalp's midline (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The cingulate cortex has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and other limbic areas (Devinsky et al., 1995).


Participation in brain networks

The cingulate cortex is a key component of several brain networks, including the default mode network (DMN), the salience network, and the executive control network, which are involved in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processing (Bressler & Menon, 2010). Functions The cingulate cortex is implicated in various cognitive functions, including attention, error detection, conflict monitoring, emotion regulation, and decision-making (Bush et al., 2000). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the cingulate cortex have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia, which often involve impairments in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processing (Vogt, 2005).



Areas 23, 24, and 31: Dorsal Posterior Cingulate Cortex (dPCC)

The dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC) is an important brain region involved in various cognitive processes, particularly related to attention and memory. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The dPCC is primarily composed of Brodmann areas 23 and 31. These areas are associated with the cingulate cortex and form part of the limbic system, which plays a crucial role in emotion formation and processing, learning, and memory (Vogt, Finch, & Olson, C., 1992). Location

The dPCC is located in the medial aspect of the brain, towards the back. It's located directly above the corpus callosum, a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres.


Connections

The dPCC has numerous connections with other areas of the brain. It connects with other regions of the cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the precuneus. It also has connections with the thalamus and various parts of the temporal and parietal lobes. These connections make the dPCC a central hub for information processing and transfer (Margulies et al., 2009).


Participation in brain networks

The dPCC is part of several crucial brain networks. It is an integral part of the default mode network (DMN), a network that is most active when the brain is at rest and not focused on the outside world. The dPCC also interacts with the salience network, which is crucial for determining what sensory or emotional inputs are most relevant to our goals and current situation (Leech & Sharp, 2014).


Functions

The functions of the dPCC are diverse and complex due to its involvement in various brain networks and its wide-ranging connections. These functions include self-referential thought, episodic memory retrieval, and consciousness. It also plays a role in internally directed thought, such as daydreaming, future planning, and moral reasoning (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010).


Role in clinical disorders

Abnormalities or dysfunction in the dPCC have been linked to several clinical disorders. These include Alzheimer's disease, where decreased activity in the dPCC has been associated with the early stages of the disease (Buckner, R. L., et al., 2005). The dPCC has also been implicated in various psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia, where altered connectivity within and between networks involving the dPCC is often seen (Greicius et al., 2007).



Areas 24 and 32: Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC)

The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is an essential brain region involved in various cognitive and emotional processes, particularly related to attention, conflict monitoring, and error detection. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The dACC mainly comprises Brodmann areas 24 and 32 and the dorsal parts of area 33 (Vogt, 2009). Location

The dACC is situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex, surrounding the corpus callosum, and lies anterior to the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (Vogt, 2009). Nearby EEG electrode positions include Fz, FCz, and Cz, located along the scalp's midline (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The dACC has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and other limbic areas (Devinsky et al., 1995).


Participation in brain networks

The dACC is a key component of the salience and executive control networks involved in attention, conflict monitoring, and cognitive control (Bressler & Menon, 2010). Functions The dACC is implicated in various cognitive functions, including attention, error detection, conflict monitoring, decision-making, and emotion regulation (Bush et al., 2000). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the dACC have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and ADHD, which often involve impairments in attention and cognitive control (Vogt, 2005).



Areas 24, 25, 32, and 33: Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC)

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a crucial brain region involved in various cognitive, emotional, and regulatory processes. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The ACC is divided into several subregions, including the dorsal ACC (dACC; Brodmann areas 24 and 32) and the ventral ACC (vACC; Brodmann areas 25 and 33; Vogt, 2009). Location

The ACC is located in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex, surrounding the corpus callosum, with the dACC situated dorsally and the vACC situated ventrally (Vogt, 2009).

Connections

The ACC has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and other limbic areas (Devinsky et al., 1995).


Participation in brain networks

The ACC is a key component of several brain networks, including the default mode network (DMN), the salience network, and the executive control network, which are involved in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processing (Bressler & Menon, 2010). Functions The ACC is implicated in various cognitive functions, including attention, error detection, conflict monitoring, emotion regulation, and decision-making (Bush et al., 2000). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the ACC have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia, which often involve impairments in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processing (Vogt, 2005).



Area 27: Pyriform (Piriform) Cortex

The pyriform cortex, also known as the primary olfactory cortex, is a crucial brain region that processes olfactory information. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The pyriform cortex is not typically associated with specific Brodmann areas. It is part of the allocortex, which has a simpler organization than the isocortex, where Brodmann areas are usually defined (Shepherd, 2007). Location

The pyriform cortex is located in the medial temporal lobe, anterior to the perirhinal cortex and lateral to the amygdala (Neville & Haberly, 2004).

Connections

The pyriform cortex has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the olfactory bulb, amygdala, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and hippocampus, which are involved in processing and integrating olfactory information (Gottfried, 2010).


Participation in brain networks

The pyriform cortex is a key component of the olfactory network, which processes and integrates olfactory information from the environment and plays a role in memory, emotion, and decision-making (Gottfried, 2010). Functions The pyriform cortex primarily processes olfactory information, including odor discrimination, odor memory, and odor-guided behavior (Neville & Haberly, 2004). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the piriform cortex have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia, which often involve impairments in olfactory function (Doty, 2008).



Area 28: Ventral Entorhinal Cortex (vEC)

The ventral entorhinal cortex (vEC) is an important brain region involved in various cognitive processes, particularly memory and spatial navigation. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The entorhinal cortex is not typically associated with specific Brodmann areas, as it is part of the allocortex, which has a simpler organization than the isocortex, where Brodmann areas are usually defined (Witter et al., 2000). Location

The ventral entorhinal cortex is located in the medial temporal lobe, anterior to the hippocampus and posterior to the perirhinal cortex (Witter et al., 2000).

Connections

The ventral entorhinal cortex has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, parahippocampal cortex, and prefrontal cortex, which are involved in memory and spatial navigation (van Strien et al., 2009; Witter et al., 2000).


Participation in brain networks

The ventral entorhinal cortex is a key component of the medial temporal lobe memory system, which is crucial for episodic memory and spatial navigation (Eichenbaum et al., 2007). Functions The ventral entorhinal cortex is implicated in various cognitive functions, including episodic memory and spatial navigation (Eichenbaum et al., 2007; Hafting et al., 2005). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the ventral entorhinal cortex have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, and schizophrenia, which often involve impairments in memory and spatial navigation (Braak & Braak, 1991; Du et al., 2017).


Areas 28 and 34: Dorsal Entorhinal Cortex (dEC)

The dorsal entorhinal cortex (dEC) is an important brain region involved in spatial memory and navigation. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas do not easily define the entorhinal cortex (EC), as it is an evolutionarily conserved structure that does not map neatly onto the cytoarchitectonic divisions. However, it is often associated with Brodmann areas 28 and 34 (Van Strien et al., 2009). Location

The dEC is located in the medial temporal lobe, situated dorsal to the ventral entorhinal cortex (vEC) (Van Strien et al., 2009).

Connections

The dEC has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, parahippocampal cortex, and other medial temporal lobe structures (Witter et al., 2000).


Participation in brain networks

The dEC is involved in the medial temporal lobe memory system, which plays a crucial role in spatial memory and navigation (Eichenbaum, 2000). Functions The dEC is implicated in various cognitive functions, including spatial memory, navigation, and contextual processing (Hafting et al., 2005). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the dEC have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, which involves memory and navigation impairments (Khan et al., 2014).



Areas 29 and 30: Ectosplenial Retrosplenial Cerebral Cortex

The ectosplenial region is not a widely recognized or well-established region within the human retrosplenial cortex. However, the retrosplenial cortex is a crucial brain area involved in various cognitive processes, particularly spatial memory, and navigation. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas The retrosplenial cortex mainly comprises Brodmann areas 29 and 30, which are located in the posterior cingulate cortex (Vogt et al., 2006).

Location The retrosplenial cortex is situated in the medial parietal lobe, posterior to the splenium of the corpus callosum, and adjacent to the posterior cingulate cortex (Vann et al., 2009). Its nearby EEG electrode positions include Pz, CPz, and Oz, located along the midline of the scalp (Jasper, 1958).

Connections The retrosplenial cortex has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, and other parietal and frontal areas (Vann et al., 2009).

Participation in brain networks The retrosplenial cortex is a key component of the default mode network (DMN) and is involved in spatial memory, episodic memory, and self-referential processing (Buckner et al., 2008).

Functions The retrosplenial cortex is implicated in various cognitive functions, including spatial memory, navigation, episodic memory, and scene construction (Epstein, 2008; Vann et al., 2009).

Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the retrosplenial cortex have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, amnesia, and schizophrenia, which often involve impairments in spatial memory and navigation (Maguire, 2001; Mendez & Cherrier, 2003).



Areas 35 and 36: Perirhinal Cortex (PRC)

The perirhinal cortex (PRC) is a significant brain region involved in various cognitive processes, such as object recognition and memory. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The PRC is associated with Brodmann areas 35 and 36, located within the medial temporal lobe (Van Hoesen & Pandya, 1975). Location

The PRC is located in the medial temporal lobe, adjacent to the entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex (Van Hoesen & Pandya, 1975).

Connections

The PRC has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, amygdala, and other medial temporal lobe structures (Suzuki & Amaral, 1994).


Participation in brain networks

The PRC is a crucial component of the medial temporal lobe memory system, playing an essential role in object recognition, associative memory, and familiarity-based recognition (Eichenbaum et al., 2007). Functions The PRC is implicated in various cognitive functions, including object recognition, associative memory, and familiarity-based recognition (Eichenbaum et al., 2007). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the PRC have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and other memory-related disorders (Khan et al., 2014).



Areas 37 and 19: Fusiform Gyrus

The fusiform gyrus is a key brain region involved in various cognitive processes, such as face and object recognition. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The fusiform gyrus is associated with Brodmann areas 37 and 19, located on the ventral surface of the temporal and occipital lobes (Grill-Spector et al., 2001). Location

The fusiform gyrus is located on the ventral surface of the temporal and occipital lobes, medial to the inferior temporal gyrus, and lateral to the parahippocampal gyrus (Grill-Spector et al., 2001).

Connections

The fusiform gyrus has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the inferior temporal cortex, occipital cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala, and other medial temporal lobe structures (Catani et al., 2003).


Participation in brain networks

The fusiform gyrus is involved in the ventral visual processing stream, playing a crucial role in object and face recognition and other high-level visual processes (Grill-Spector et al., 2001). Functions The fusiform gyrus is implicated in various cognitive functions, including object recognition, face recognition, and high-level visual processing (Grill-Spector et al., 2001). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the fusiform gyrus have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as prosopagnosia, autism spectrum disorders, and Alzheimer's disease (Avidan & Behrmann, 2009).



Area 38: Temporopolar Area (Temporal Pole)

The temporopolar area, also known as the temporal pole, involves various cognitive and emotional processes. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The temporopolar area is associated with Brodmann area 38, located at the most anterior part of the temporal lobe (Öngür et al., 2003). Location

The temporopolar area is located at the most anterior part of the temporal lobe, anterior to the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri (Öngür et al., 2003).

Connections

The temporopolar area has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and other temporal lobe structures (Olson et al., 2007).


Participation in brain networks

The temporopolar area is involved in various brain networks, including the default mode and salience networks, playing crucial roles in social cognition, emotional processing, and semantic memory (Roy et al., 2009). Functions The temporopolar area is implicated in various cognitive functions, including social cognition, emotional processing, and semantic memory (Roy et al., 2009). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the temporopolar area have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other memory-related disorders (Seeley et al., 2009).



Area 39: Angular Gyrus

The angular gyrus is a brain region involved in various cognitive processes, such as language, attention, and spatial cognition. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The angular gyrus is associated with Brodmann area 39, located in the parietal lobe (Caspers et al., 2006). Location

The angular gyrus is located in the parietal lobe, at the junction of the superior temporal and occipital lobes, and is bordered by the supramarginal gyrus and the occipital cortex (Caspers et al., 2006). The angular gyrus is situated near the P3 and P4 electrode sites of the International 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The angular gyrus has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and other regions within the parietal lobe (Seghier, 2013).


Participation in brain networks

The angular gyrus plays crucial roles in attention, memory, and language processing in several brain networks, such as the default mode and frontoparietal control networks (Seghier, 2013). Functions The angular gyrus is implicated in various cognitive functions, including language processing, attention, spatial cognition, and mathematical processing (Seghier, 2013). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the angular gyrus have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as dyslexia, aphasia, and Gerstmann syndrome, which involve impairments in language, calculation, and other cognitive processes (Hoeft et al., 2007).



Area 40: Supramarginal Gyrus

The supramarginal gyrus is a brain region involved in various cognitive processes, such as language, attention, and sensorimotor integration. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The supramarginal gyrus is associated with Brodmann area 40, located in the parietal lobe (Caspers et al., 2006). Location

The supramarginal gyrus is located in the parietal lobe at the posterior end of the Sylvian fissure and is bordered by the angular gyrus and the postcentral gyrus (Caspers et al., 2006). It is situated near the P3 and P4 electrode sites of the International 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The supramarginal gyrus has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and other regions within the parietal lobe (Caspers et al., 2011).


Participation in brain networks

The supramarginal gyrus is involved in several brain networks, such as the frontoparietal control network and the dorsal attention network, playing crucial roles in attention, language processing, and sensorimotor integration (Caspers et al., 2011). Functions The supramarginal gyrus is implicated in various cognitive functions, including language processing, attention, sensorimotor integration, and working memory (Caspers et al., 2011). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the supramarginal gyrus have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as dyslexia, apraxia, and other cognitive impairments involving language and sensorimotor processing (Hoeft et al., 2007).



Areas 41 and 42: Auditory Cortex

The auditory cortex is a brain region involved in processing auditory information. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The auditory cortex comprises several Brodmann areas, including the primary auditory cortex (Brodmann areas 41 and 42) and the surrounding secondary auditory cortex (Brodmann area 22; Morosan et al., 2001). Location

The auditory cortex is located in the superior temporal gyrus within the Sylvian fissure, extending into the lateral sulcus in the temporal lobe (Morosan et al., 2001).

Connections

The auditory cortex has extensive connections with other brain regions, including the thalamus (specifically, the medial geniculate nucleus), inferior colliculus, and other cortical regions involved in language, attention, and multisensory integration (Bizley & Cohen, 2013).


Participation in brain networks

The auditory cortex participates in several brain networks, such as the auditory processing, language, and attention networks, playing crucial roles in sound processing, speech perception, and auditory attention (Griffiths & Warren, 2002). Functions The auditory cortex involves various functions, including sound processing, speech perception, scene analysis, and attention (Griffiths & Warren, 2002). Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the auditory cortex have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as tinnitus, auditory processing disorders, and language-related impairments like dyslexia (Sedley et al., 2015).



Area 43: Primary Gustatory Cortex (PGC)

The primary gustatory cortex (PGC) is a brain region that processes taste information. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The PGC is associated with Brodmann area 43, also known as the opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the insular cortex (Brodmann area 13; Ogawa, 2012; Small et al., 1999). Location

The PGC is situated in the insular cortex, specifically in the anterior insula, and extends into the adjacent opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus (Small et al., 1999).

Connections

The PGC connects with various brain regions, including the thalamus (specifically, the ventroposteromedial nucleus), orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and other cortical regions involved in multisensory integration, emotion, and memory (Rolls, 2006).


Participation in brain networks

The PGC is part of the gustatory processing network, which involves taste perception and associated emotional and cognitive processes (Rolls, 2006). Functions The PGC is involved in processing taste information, including taste perception, taste discrimination, and integration with other sensory modalities (Small et al., 1999).

Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the PGC have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as taste-related disorders (ageusia) and eating disorders (anorexia nervosa; Frank et al., 2016).



Area 44: Pars Opercularis (inferior temporal gyrus and part of Broca's area)

The pars opercularis is a brain region involved in language processing and motor control. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The pars opercularis is part of Brodmann area 44, which is also known as the opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus (Amunts et al., 1999). Location

The pars opercularis is situated in the inferior frontal gyrus, posterior to the pars triangularis, and anterior to the precentral gyrus in the frontal lobe (Amunts et al., 1999). It is located near the F7 and F8 electrode sites of the International 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The pars opercularis connects with various brain regions, including the posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area), precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, and other cortical regions involved in language processing and motor control (Friederici, 2011).


Participation in brain networks

The pars opercularis is part of the language network and motor networks, playing crucial roles in speech production, syntactic processing, and motor control (Friederici, 2011). Functions The pars opercularis is involved in various functions, including speech production, syntactic processing, and motor control (Friederici, 2011).

Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the pars opercularis have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as developmental language disorders, stuttering, and apraxia of speech (Neef et al., 2018; Watkins et al., 2002).



Area 45: Pars Triangularis (inferior temporal gyrus and part of Broca's area)

The pars triangularis is a brain region involved in language processing and executive functions. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The pars triangularis is part of Brodmann area 45, which is also known as the triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus (Amunts et al., 1999). Location

The pars triangularis is situated in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior to the pars opercularis, and posterior to the pars orbitalis in the frontal lobe (Amunts et al., 1999). It is located near the F7 and F8 electrode sites of the International 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The pars triangularis connects with various brain regions, including the posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and other cortical regions involved in language processing and executive functions (Friederici, 2011).


Participation in brain networks

The pars triangularis is part of the language and executive control networks, playing crucial roles in semantic processing, working memory, and cognitive control (Friederici, 2011). Functions The pars triangularis is involved in various functions, including semantic processing, working memory, and cognitive control (Friederici, 2011).

Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the pars triangularis have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as developmental language disorders, aphasia, and ADHD (Booth et al., 2005; Watkins et al., 2002).



Areas 9, 46, 8, and 10: Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC)

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a critical brain region involved in various cognitive and executive functions. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The DLPFC mainly includes Brodmann areas 9 and 46 and parts of areas 8 and 10 (Rajkowska & Goldman-Rakic, 1995). Location

The DLPFC is situated in the lateral and superior part of the frontal lobe, encompassing the middle and superior frontal gyri (Rajkowska & Goldman-Rakic, 1995). The DLPFC is located near the F3 and F4 electrode sites of the International 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958).

Connections

The DLPFC connects with various brain regions, including the parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and striatum, forming key nodes within the fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks (Fuster, 2001; Dosenbach et al., 2007).


Participation in brain networks

The DLPFC is part of the central executive network, playing crucial roles in cognitive control, working memory, decision-making, and goal-directed behavior (Fuster, 2001; Niendam et al., 2012). Functions The DLPFC is involved in various functions, including cognitive control, working memory, decision-making, and goal-directed behavior (Fuster, 2001; Niendam et al., 2012).

Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the DLPFC have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and ADHD (Broyd et al., 2009; Cao et al., 2021; Liston et al., 2011).



Area 47: Pars Orbitalis (part of the inferior frontal gyrus)

The pars orbitalis is a brain region involved in various cognitive and emotional processes. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The pars orbitalis is part of Brodmann area 47, which is located in the orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus (Amunts et al., 1999). Location

The pars orbitalis is situated in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior to the pars triangularis, and posterior to the lateral orbital gyrus in the frontal lobe (Amunts et al., 1999). It is located near the Fp1 and Fp2 electrode sites.

Connections

The pars orbitalis connects with various brain regions, including the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and other cortical regions involved in emotional processing, decision-making, and social cognition (Barbas, 2007; Ongür & Price, 2000).


Participation in brain networks

The pars orbitalis is part of the salience network and other networks associated with emotional processing, decision-making, and social cognition (Seeley et al., 2007). Functions The pars orbitalis involves various functions, including emotional processing, decision-making, and social cognition (Barbas, 2007; Ongür & Price, 2000).

Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the pars orbitalis have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and autism spectrum disorders (Phillips et al., 2003; Di Martino et al., 2009).



Area 48: Retrosubicular Area (small medial temporal lobe area)

The retrosubicular area, also called the presubiculum, is a part of the hippocampal formation involved in various cognitive processes, particularly spatial navigation, and memory. Graphic © Big8/Shutterstock.com.


Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

The retrosubicular area is not directly associated with a specific Brodmann area, as it is part of the hippocampal formation, which is a medial temporal lobe structure not included in Brodmann's original cytoarchitectonic maps. Location

The retrosubicular area, or presubiculum, is situated in the medial temporal lobe between the subiculum and parasubiculum, forming part of the hippocampal formation (Amaral & Witter, 1995).

Connections

The retrosubicular area connects with various brain regions, including the entorhinal cortex, other hippocampal subregions (e.g., subiculum, CA1), and the mammillary bodies via the fornix (Witter et al., 2000).


Participation in brain networks

The retrosubicular area is part of the medial temporal lobe memory system and the Papez circuit, which are involved in memory processing, spatial navigation, and emotional processing (Aggleton & Brown, 1999; Eichenbaum, 2000). Functions The retrosubicular area involves various functions, including spatial navigation, memory processing, and emotional processing (Eichenbaum, 2000).

Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the retrosubicular area have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, and schizophrenia (Du et al., 1993; Heckers et al., 1998; Hyman et al., 1984).



Areas 13, 14, and 52: Parainsular Area (junction of the temporal lobe and insula)

The parainsular area is not a well-defined or widely recognized region in the human brain, and limited information is available on this specific area. Graphics © Fascija/Shutterstock.com.

Brodmann areas


Brodmann areas

The insular cortex is associated with Brodmann areas 13, 14, and 52. Location

The insular cortex is located deep within the lateral sulcus, separating the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe.

Connections

The insular cortex has widespread connections with various brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, and limbic structures (Augustine, 1996).


Participation in brain networks

The insular cortex is involved in multiple brain networks, including the salience network, which is responsible for detecting and responding to salient stimuli (Menon & Uddin, 2010). Functions The insular cortex involves various functions, including interoception, emotional processing, pain perception, and cognitive control (Craig, 2009).

Role in clinical disorders Abnormalities in the insular cortex have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, depression, autism, and schizophrenia (Menon, 2011).

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Glossary

Angular gyrus: Located in the parietal lobe near the junction of the temporal and occipital lobes, the angular gyrus corresponds to Brodmann area 39. It plays a role in language processing, attention, spatial cognition, and integration of sensory information. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC): Located in the medial portion of the frontal lobes, the anterior cingulate cortex encompasses Brodmann areas 24, 25, 32, and 33. It plays a role in executive function, emotional regulation, attention, conflict monitoring, and error detection.


Anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC): Found in the most anterior region of the prefrontal cortex, the anterior prefrontal cortex includes Brodmann areas 10 and 11. It involves complex cognitive processes such as planning, decision-making, working memory, and abstract reasoning.


Auditory cortex: Situated in the superior temporal gyrus, the auditory cortex encompasses Brodmann areas 41 and 42. It is responsible for processing and interpreting auditory information.


Cingulate cortex: A part of the limbic system, the cingulate cortex is situated in the medial aspects of the frontal and parietal lobes, covering Brodmann areas 23, 24, 30, 31, and 33. It involves emotion processing, memory, attention, and cognitive control.


Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC): Located in the dorsal region of the anterior cingulate cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex includes Brodmann areas 24 and 32. It plays a role in cognitive control, decision-making, and conflict monitoring.


Dorsal entorhinal cortex (DEC): Situated in the medial temporal lobe, the dorsal entorhinal cortex comprises parts of Brodmann area 28. It is involved in spatial memory and navigation.


Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC): Found in the lateral region of the prefrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex includes Brodmann areas 9, 46, and parts of 8 and 10. It involves working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, and abstract reasoning.


Dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC): Located in the posterior part of the cingulate cortex, the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex covers Brodmann area 31. It is involved in self-referential thought, memory, and spatial awareness.


Ectosplenial cerebral cortex: Part of the retrosplenial cortex, the ectosplenial cerebral cortex is situated within the cingulate cortex and covers Brodmann area 29. It plays a role in spatial memory, navigation, and contextual processing.


Frontal eye field (FEF): Located in the anterior part of the middle frontal gyrus, the frontal eye field corresponds to Brodmann area 8. It is involved in voluntary eye movement control and visual attention.


Fusiform gyrus: Situated in the ventral region of the temporal and occipital lobes, the fusiform gyrus includes Brodmann areas 37 and parts of 19 and 20. It is involved in face recognition, object recognition, and color and visual form processing.


Inferior temporal gyrus (ITG): Located in the inferior temporal lobe region, the inferior temporal gyrus encompasses Brodmann areas 20 and 21. It plays a role in visual object recognition and semantic memory.


Insular cortex (insula): Situated within the lateral sulcus, the insular cortex covers Brodmann areas 13, 14, 15, and 16. It is involved in processing emotions, interoception, self-awareness, pain perception, and taste sensation.


Middle temporal gyrus (MTG): Located in the middle region of the temporal lobe, the middle temporal gyrus encompasses Brodmann areas 21 and 37. It plays a role in language processing, semantic memory, and visual motion processing.


Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC): Found in the ventral part of the frontal lobes, the orbitofrontal cortex includes Brodmann areas 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 47. It involves decision-making, reward processing, emotional regulation, and social cognition.


Pars opercularis: Located in the inferior frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis corresponds to Brodmann area 44. It plays a role in language production and is part of Broca's area.


Pars orbitalis: Situated in the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus, the pars orbitalis covers Brodmann area 47. It is involved in language processing, social cognition, and emotional regulation.


Pars triangularis: Located in the anterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus, the pars triangularis corresponds to Brodmann area 45. It is involved in language processing and is part of Broca's area.


Parainsular area: Found adjacent to the insular cortex, the parainsular area comprises parts of Brodmann areas 13 and 52. It involves auditory and somatosensory integration and processing pain and temperature sensations.


Perirhinal cortex: Situated in the medial temporal lobe, the perirhinal cortex encompasses Brodmann areas 35 and 36. It plays a role in object recognition, associative memory, and contextual processing.


Primary gustatory cortex: Located within the insular cortex, the primary gustatory cortex corresponds to Brodmann area 43. It is responsible for processing taste information.


Primary motor cortex (M1): Situated in the precentral gyrus, the primary motor cortex corresponds to Brodmann area 4. It is responsible for voluntary movement control.


Primary somatosensory cortex (S1): Located in the postcentral gyrus, the primary somatosensory cortex covers Brodmann areas 1, 2, and 3. It is responsible for processing somatosensory information, including touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception.


Primary visual cortex (V1): Situated in the calcarine sulcus within the occipital lobe, the primary visual cortex corresponds to Brodmann area 17. It is responsible for processing basic visual information.


Pyriform cortex: Located in the ventral part of the temporal lobe, the pyriform cortex (also known as the primary olfactory cortex) includes parts of Brodmann areas 27, 28, and 34. It is responsible for processing olfactory information.


Retrosplenial cingulate cortex: Found in the posterior part of the cingulate cortex, the retrosplenial cingulate cortex covers Brodmann areas 29 and 30. It is involved in spatial memory, navigation, and contextual processing.


Retrosubicular area: Located in the medial temporal lobe, the retrosubicular area is part of the parahippocampal gyrus and corresponds to Brodmann area 27. It is involved in spatial navigation and memory.


Secondary visual cortex (V2): Situated adjacent to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe, the secondary visual cortex corresponds to Brodmann area 18. It is involved in processing visual information, including recognition of shapes, colors, and spatial orientation.


Somatosensory association cortex (SAC): Located in the parietal lobe, the somatosensory association cortex encompasses Brodmann areas 5 and 7. It is involved in the integration and interpretation of somatosensory information, such as touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception.


Subgenual ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC): Situated in the ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex, the subgenual ventromedial prefrontal cortex includes parts of Brodmann areas 25, 32, and 14. It is involved in emotional regulation, decision-making, and social cognition.


Supplementary motor cortex (SMA): Located in the medial part of the superior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor cortex corresponds to Brodmann area 6. It is involved in planning and coordinating complex movements and motor learning.


Supramarginal gyrus: Situated in the parietal lobe, the supramarginal gyrus is part of the inferior parietal lobule and corresponds to Brodmann area 40. It is involved in language processing, attention, and spatial cognition.


Superior temporal gyrus (STG): Located in the superior region of the temporal lobe, the superior temporal gyrus encompasses Brodmann areas 22, 41, and 42. It plays a role in auditory processing, language comprehension, and social cognition.


Temporopolar area: Situated in the most anterior part of the temporal lobe, the temporopolar area corresponds to Brodmann area 38. It is involved in olfactory processing, social cognition, and semantic memory.


Ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC): Located in the ventral region of the anterior cingulate cortex, the ventral anterior cingulate cortex includes parts of Brodmann areas 24, 25, and 33. It is involved in emotional regulation, attention, and pain processing.


Ventral entorhinal cortex (VEC): Situated in the medial temporal lobe, the ventral entorhinal cortex covers parts of Brodmann area 28. It is involved in object recognition, memory, and contextual processing.


Ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC): Located in the ventral part of the posterior cingulate cortex, the ventral posterior cingulate cortex includes parts of Brodmann areas 23 and 31. It involves self-referential thought, episodic memory retrieval, and emotional processing.


Visual association cortex: Found in the occipital and parietal lobes, the visual association cortex includes Brodmann areas 18, 19, and parts of 7. It is responsible for higher-level visual processing, including object recognition, motion perception, and spatial awareness.



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